Implications for women in leadership positions of Inequalities regimes in organizations

1.      Introduction

In order to understand the implications for women at leadership position of Inequalities regimes in organizations we need to understand the inequalities first, basically it is the difference between employees in control and power over the resources, decisions taken by management at work placement, promotion, wages, reward, equal opportunities to all employees, job security and respect in achieving organizational goals (Aker, 2006). In organizations inequalities are different, equalities can be found in very few organizations and in job security and employee’s benefits equality may occur in some organizations. There is always discriminations on the bases of race, colour, sex, region, religion (Acker, 2000).

There are two basically implications for women in leadership positions of Inequalities regimes in organizations

1.         Individualized wage settings (that produce the inequality)

2.         Wage setting system (It is necessary to investigate the wage setting system)

Acker, (2006) has been stated that almost all inequality regimes can be found in all organizations including processes, actions and inter related practices. He also stated that different inequalities can be presented in different organizations, he also given preference to the class and race are the most two prominent factors beside the gender she also highlighted the other factors like sexual preferences at the work placement beyond the class, race and gender. It is assumed that heterosexuality is the organizational practices and processes can disturb the organizational work (Glass, 2004). Women are scare in leadership positions because of inequality regimes including race, gender and class, in most of the organizations white men and women from dominant racial group are at top positions (Davis, 1981). The relations at supervisory level can be affected because of race and gender leadership behaviour with subordinator always has an impact of inequality. It has been observed that the white man at top positions do not focus and listen the women at leadership positions due to (colour difference) race and class difference and ignore them in meetings and devalue women excluding white women at leadership position. In some organization women employees are supposed to sexually attract customers. Basically Acker has conducted the research with the aims to understand the power and work relations in an organization (Aker, 2006).

Ackers has defined the inequality as disparities among the participants in the following areas

Opportunities

Respect

Wages

Job security and rewards

Resources allocations

Assigning tasks

Power/ authority and decision making sharing

Inequality in the politics, culture, society and history has strong link inequalities regimes in organizations (Collins, 1995).

2.      Analysis

The main base of inequality in an organization is the Class rather than the sex, religion, wage and race. One more basis of inequalities is the difference between accessing and controlling resources in an organization in achieving organizational objectives. But the class is main important because the CEO (national) in an organization always lead and command the rest of the employees from different countries (Brown, et al., 2003).

2.1      Gender and Race

Lower level jobs are always done by women and men always manage them, most women are doing job such as clerks, customer care services, personal assistance and secretary, although in some organizations women are doing job at managerial level (Charles & David, 2004).

The disturbance in the organization is always started from women, women always started to disturb men at work. Race is another base of inequality in the organization. Race means the region, particular group, particular belief and culture (Burawoy, 1979).

2.2      Wage and Power difference

With the height of hierarchy salary varies in organization. Top most person (CEO) always earned more than the staff members, whereas in the organizations white men always earn more as compared to other nationals even if he or she is doing job in bottom level. Professional associations and labour unions can play their important role in minimizing this variation (Ely & Debra, 2000). Same as in salary variation there is also variation in the powers and that is connected with the height of hierarchy but professional associations and labour unions can play their important role in minimizing this variation. Race and sex are always very important in giving power and authority in an organization all the managers do not have same powers and authorities, so this is the class difference (Acker, 1991). Even then if the men and women are the manager in an organization there will be a wage difference, power difference and authority difference. First of all the main reason of inequality is the nature of work at an organization (Enarson, 1984). As the managerial work is carried out by the white people and they do not have the children responsibilities and other work at home, they just need to go office given directions to the subordinators and get heavy salaries, whereas women worker at low level has no flexibility they are responsible to look after their home and family members. There is an unjustified wag gap exist among the gender type, at the same level women are earning low wages as compared to men wages (Glass, 2004). Similarly skilled men are earning high wags as compared to skilled women at the same level in an organization. So this gender difference wage gap also creating inequality at work placement. Similarly it has been observed that women workers at managerial level do not credited whereas the men managers always credited by their performance. Some scholars have stated that from some organizations the middle management level has removed to create equality among men and women at job particularly in wage area (Brown, et al., 2003).

2.3      Supervisory Practices

Basically the first implication of for women at leadership position in inequality regime organization is the supervisory practices, because the relations between supervisor and subordinator can be influenced because of race and gender. Leader’s attitude with its subordinators may be different as compared to job nature requirement because of race and gender and can lead to inequality (Charles & David, 2004). Women working at low level and earn low wages as compared to top level managerial and they need to do more work as compared to their managers so this difference of wages and work load create inequality among men and women (Acker, 1989). Job descriptions always associated with the task and nature of job and the wages rates are as according to the responsibilities. Women jobs are related with the lower wages and most of the sexy women doing job in organizations as secretary level or at clerical level, whereas at the same position men wages are high as compared to women as the same level.

According to Ackers (2006) that at the work placement when men and women interact with each other, they involve in class, gender and race inequalities and they made different assumptions about their wages. Inequalities created by the interaction practices are complex to document. Employers believed that women workers must be pretty and sexually attractive to attract the customers to increase the sales volume (Ely & Debra, 2000). Inequalities can be controlled by maintaining the authority and power among managers, by reducing the gap between wage differences (Brown, et al., 2003). Management should start reward system to control the racial and gender difference and punishment system should be introduced for non compliance with rules and regulation (Acker, 1991). Bureaucratic system should be finished and power must be maintained among all managers as per their task nature to access and control the resources in achieving organizational objectives.

3.      Conclusion

These are class practices and the top level managers manage and control the workers by dividing work and allocating resources and set the wages as per the skills and competencies and job nature. Some scholars stated that race and gender have impact in wage setting and supervisory practices and create inequality at work placement and lead class to the unfair wage settings (Collinson & Jeff, 1996). The organizations must consider the fair wage process in order to reduce the inequality. The difference among the wage rate between men and women has been increased that produced the inequalities in organizations. To reduce the inequality the managers must reward the high performance employees with more wages for more productivity (Aker, 2006). The bases and practices those produces the inequalities in organizations have been discussed above in details and the implications for women at leadership level in inequality regime organizations have been discussed. The organizations need to review their supervisory practices and wage gap existed among men and women worker in the organizations to reduce the inequalities from organizations for more productivity. Equality can be produced by reducing the inequalities in wages, retirement benefits and in medical allowance. Whereas in order to reduce the labour cost the organizations need to do downsizing and using outsourcing for more productivity and efficiency, in this way inequalities can be reduced. Organizations must compliance with the equal employment opportunity laws to create equality in the work placement.

4.      References and bibliography

a.        Books and Journals

Acker, J. (1989) Doing comparable worth: Gender, class and pay equity. Philadelphia: Temple University Press

Acker, J. (1990) Hierarchies, jobs, and bodies: A theory of gendered organizations, Gender & Society, 11(12), pp: 52- 123

Acker, J. (1991) Thinking about wages: The gendered wage gap in Swedish banks, Gender & Society, 12(13), pp: 382-390

Acker, J. (2000) Revisiting class: Thinking from gender, race and organizations. Social Politics, 12(6), pp: 23-56

Adkins, L. (1995) Gendered work, 1st ed. London: Open University Press

Barker, J. R. (1993) Tightening the iron cage: Concertive control in self-managing teams,

Administrative Science Quarterly, 23(25), pp: 72-98

Brown, M. K., Carnoy, M., Currie, E., Duster, T., Oppenheimer, D. B., Shultz, M. M. & Wellman, D. (2003) White-washing race: The myth of a color-blind society, 1st ed.Berkeley: University of California Press

Burawoy, M. (1979) Manufacturing consent. 1st ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press

Charles, M. & David, B. G. (2004) Occupational ghettos: The worldwide segregation of women and men. 1st ed. CA: Stanford University Press

Cockburn, C. (1991) In the way of women: Men’s resistance to sex equality in organizations, 1st ed. NY: ILR Press

Collins, P. H. (1995) Comment on West and Fenstermaker. Gender & Society, 11(9), pp: 73-84

Collinson, D. L. & Jeff, H. (1996) Men as managers, managers as men, 1st ed. London: Sage Publishers

Davis, A. Y. (1981) Women, race & class, 1st ed. New York: Vintage Publishers

Ely, R. J. & Debra, E. M. (2000) Advancing gender equity in organizations: The challenge and importance of maintaining a gender narrative. Organization, 12(13), pp: 323-334

Enarson, E. (1984) Woods-working women: Sexual integration in the U.S. Forest Service. 1st ed. AL: University of Alabama Press

Glass, J. (2004) Blessing or curse? Work-family policies and mother’s wage growth over time, Work and Occupations, 14(21), pp: 34-76

B.        Websites

Aker, J. (2006) Inequality Regimes: Gender, Class, and Race in Organizations. Gender &amp; Society. [online] 5(20). pp: 23-46. Available from <http://www.sagepub.com/oswcondensed/study/articles/05/Acker.pdf&gt; [Accessed on 2nd November 2014]

C.        Bibliography

Featherstone, L. (2004) Selling women short: The landmark battle for workers’ rights at Wal-Mart. New York: Basic Books

Fenstermaker, S. & Candace, W. (2002) Doing gender, doing difference: Inequality, power and institutional change, 1st ed.  New York: Routledge Publishers

Published by MALI

Writer is post-graduated in Computer science, Business Administration, Marketing and Innovation. He has 10 years of business academic research writing experience.

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