The role of CRM department in Identifying Customer’s expectations to achieve organizational objectives

Chapter #:1     Introduction

1.1    Introduction

Market is a place where the buyer and seller meet their needs and want and the transaction occur, the seller sell the products and buyers buy the items as per needs and requirements (Anderson and Mittal, 2008). Bennett, (2003) has been stated that only the customer relationship management can identify the client’s requirements to identify and then for manufacturing products and services as per their requirements which includes features and values and all other functions of the products and services by considering all other factors those can create happiness among the people. Anderson, (2009) stated that customers have specific needs and want and they come to market to buy the suitable products to overcome their needs and wants similarly the business companies have the solution of customers and they came in the market to sell their products. After consuming the products the customers came to know about the results and if the results are as per their expectations and the product features are according to their expectations and their problem has been solved after using the product then the customer will be happy and satisfaction will be there among the customers otherwise he customer will be angry and the company will lose the business (Bejou et al., 2005). According to the Bennett, (2003) that, if there is no client then, there will be no business. So this is important for the organizations to have clients and their expectations are necessary for the organizations to be identified to manufacture the specific products for the clients to make sales and the sales can be made only by offering suitable products as per their expectations (Bhote, 2003). The organizations can be successful in the way that they successfully identify their needs and wants and then they can offer them the suitable products with expected quality and services (Buttle, 2007). A gap is always exists between the expectations and the offered services (Chen & Popovich, 2007) and if this gap can be reduced then the organizations can make long term relationship with the customers and sales volume could be increased by making and implementing the strategies to find out customers needs and wants. Anderson and Mittal, (2008) have been stated that only customer relationship management staff members can identify the customer’s expectations and can provide them the suitable products and quality of services because it is the main responsibility of the CRM department and this character can leads the organizations towards successful and this is only way to create and establish such strategies that can create satisfaction and happiness among the clients and this satisfaction can lead them near the success. The gap between the people expectations and their demand quality and services and the perceived quality of products and services can be reduces and minimized only by the customer relationship management if they have the proper skilled workers and the workers are already have the proper equipments and authorities to understand the client’s problems and offer them the best solutions as per their requirements (Anderson, 2009). Parasuraman et al., (2003) has been stated that it is only the department that can reduce the gap between the client’s expectations and can consider all other related factors to create brand image and to gain competitive benefits over the available competitors in the market.

1.2    Problem

Loss and profits are the final results of business operations after financial transaction has been occurred (Bejou et al., 2005). Most of the organizations could not achieve their targets (long term and short term) and these organizations suffered from the heavy financial looses and at the end either they switch the industry or they leave the business (Anderson and Mittal, 2008). There are so many problems associated with the business organizations that’s why they could not achieve their targets well in time and all those problems are associated with their negligence and due to lack of skilled workers and lack of intentions towards identifying customer’s requirements and some time due to competitors strategies the organizational strategies become fail and organizations suffered from heavy financial looses (Anderson, 2009). There is a gap exist between the customer’s expectations and the products they perceived from the manufactures and this gap have great impact on the organizational success and can also impact on the client’s satisfaction and loyalty and in this way it has the impact on the sales and growth of organization (Buttle, 2007). The organizations can minimize this gap if they have proper and suitable business strategies to identify the client’s requirements and then they pass the information to the relevant department to design and manufacture or produce such type of products and services and include all the required characteristics in the products as per client’s requirements then in such a way the organizations can achieve their long and short term targets easily otherwise in the era of high competition the competitors can lead and there will be no success (Chen & Popovich, 2007). With the development and advancement in the technology and change in the culture the client’s requirements always changed (Bejou et al., 2005). Bennett, (2003) has been stated that change in the technology and procedure always have an impact on the people’s requirements and drawbacks and benefits of technology always pay positive and negative impacts on the demand and expectations of people in a society and even then in all over the world the change in technology have an impact on the culture and human beings. So it is important for the organizations to understand the living standards and change in the expectations and behaviours of people for their business success. It is necessary for the organizations to first understand the real requirements of their potential customers and then offer them the real solution as per their problem and in this way the satisfaction can be created and the loyalty and resale is also associated with the identification of clients problems and only the CRM department can be helpful in finding out the solution, and the clients retention ratio is also associated with the CRM department’s strategies by considering client’s expectations (Bhote, 2003). Change in the environment and change in the culture and routine always change in the demand (Kitzinger, 2006). Looy et al., (2007) have been stated that among the clients happiness always leads towards satisfaction and satisfaction leads towards loyalty and customer relationship management can create the satisfaction among the clients and this satisfaction can leads the companies towards success, and the success can be only complete when the organization meets the annual sales targets.

1.3    Title

The role of CRM department in Identifying Customer’s expectations to achieve organizational objectives (A Case Study of Sainsbury Superstore in Manchester United Kingdom)

1.4    Research Question

What is the role and importance of CRM department in identification of customer’s expectations to achieve organizational objectives?

1.5    Aims and Objectives

The researcher will conduct this research to find out the main role and importance of customer relationship management departmental activities in achieving organizational objectives and for this purpose the researcher will achieve this stated aims by dividing the aim into different objectives which are given as under

1.6    Objectives

To achieve the above stated aim and as per the above stated title and research question, the researcher has been divided the objectives to achieve the main aims of the research into small objectives which are given below here

First of all the researcher will find out the main responsibilities which includes the benefits/advantages of customers relationship management departmental and its duties towards organizational objectives.

Then the researcher will disclose the impact and importance of the customer’s expectations and its importance and its role for the success of organization

The researcher will also find out the relationship between the CM departmental connection and relationships between the organizational success and customer’s requirements

All other factors those can play their role in the success of customer’s loyalty and in retaining them by considering them through customer relationship management department and including them in the strategies and implementing at the workplace

The gap will be defined in detail and its negative impacts will be finding out by the researcher and the role of CRM department in reducing this gap will be disclosed by the researcher

The main issues/problems and challenges those are main hindrance in designing and implementing its strategies for the success of organization will be disclosed and their solution will be finding out by the researcher

Finally Conclusions and recommendations will be designed and developed by the researcher as per the outcomes for improving the strategies and policies and practices in reality in the organizations for positive outcomes.

1.7    Research Questions

To achieve the above stated aims and objectives the researcher has designed the basic questions which are given as under

What is the importance of CRM department and its role in achieving organizational objectives?

What is the role of customer’s expectations in organizational success?

Is there any gap exist between client’s requirements and offered products in the selected organization?

What is the link between the customer’s requirements and how the CRM department can play its role in identifying customer’s requirements and reducing gap?

What are the draw backs of this gap and which factors must be taken into consideration by CRM department in reducing and achieving organizations objectives effectively?

What kinds of improvements are required by the CRM department to improve its policies and strategies in order to reduce and in achieving selected organization’s goals?

1.8    Research Limitations

There are following limitations which are associated with this research and researcher will minimize these limitations, these limitations are given as under

Shortage of time

Limited financial resources

The researcher has already no research conducting experience

The researcher will minimize these limitations and will discuss in detail in this section and its solution will also be discussed in this section.

1.9    Study scope

After the completion of this research the researcher may get a job in the superstore and can start his career path, and the selected organization can get maximum benefits by adopting the recommendations at the end of the research for improving its weak areas. The efficiency of the CRM department can be enhanced by implementing the effective strategies and improving the strategies and policies. The organizations in the field of super markets can be more benefited by these strategies and by acting and implementing the effective strategies and considering key and successive factors in the business strategies.

1.10  Ethical Considerations

There are so many ethical considerations are associated and attached with this research work and there are so many considerations are associated with this research those also increase the validity and reliability of the results. So by considering these considerations the researcher will not allow others (colleagues, co workers, friends and class fellows) to steel his work and the researcher will not steel colleagues, class fellow’s work and will not disclose the respondent’s data and will not use this research for another academic purpose. The researcher will not include his personal opinion and the research will be bias free, and the researcher will not use old references and scholar’s statements in the secondary data.

Chapter # 2:      Literature Review

2.1    Introduction

In this section the researcher will discuss the previous researches and the scholar statements in against and in the favour of the researcher research title and research aims and objectives. The researcher will abide by using the old research statement and will not use the unauthenticated resources to gather the review of literature.

2.2    Review of Literature

All the business organizations have their aims and objectives and to achieve those objectives the organizations manage the business activities which include the organization, resource allocation, controlling and marketing (Powell and Single, 2003). According to the Parasuraman et al., (2003) that the business organizations must achieve their sales targets for making progress and growth for its existence and it is very important for the organizations to identify customer’s needs and want and on the base of customer’s requirements the solution must be provided to them for achieving organizational objectives which includes the volume of sales enhancement, more profit and sustainable growth and in this way the organizations can play their role as social responsible for the betterment of organization. Anderson and Mittal, (2008) have been stated that customers have needs and requirements and to overcome their specific needs and wants people are always ready to pay and spend amount and in return they need the solution of their needs and wants and solution of their problems. Bhote, (2003) has been stated that there are some factors that can be helpful for an organization to find out the customer’s expectations before designing and making products and before distributing the products, so the organizations must pay their attentions towards those factors rather than to pay its attention at marketing or customer relationship management role in identifying customer’s expectation, Buttle, (2007) has been stated that those factors includes actual problem, quality, price, size, volume, availability, ingredients, promises, feedback, opinion and suggestions these factors are most helpful for the organizations to identify customer’s needs and wants. To achieve organizational objectives it is necessary to create first the loyalty and satisfaction among the customers and the organizations if pay its attention at the research and development department then the customer’s needs and wants can be identified by implementing suitable strategies (Morgan, 2004). Only the research and development department is responsible for the identification of customer’s requirements and then the marketing department is responsible for the designing, pricing, placement and promotional of those products and making it sure that the products are available in the market for buying and consuming and, furthermore the marketing department can play its role in identification and creating loyalty, happiness and satisfaction among the customers for achieving organizational objectives (Yin, 2004). Customer relationship management always play its important role in identifying organizational opportunities and customer’s expectations and playing its role for achieving organizational objectives (Anderson, 2009). This is not easy to understand and to find out the customer’s expectations with the help or with the strategies of customer relationship management because every day with the change in trends, with the change in technology and with the change in the competitors strategies and planning so it is very hard for the CRM department to find out the expectations (Bennett, 2003). According to Bejou et al., (2005) have been stated that customers have their own needs and want and they are always ready to help out the customer in creating satisfaction, happiness and loyalty and ultimately in achieving organizational objectives. There is a direct relationship between the sales and the expected products and services and in this way the organizations can achieve their targets (Bennett, 2003). It is only marketing department responsibility to make it sure and plan all the marketing strategies in such a way that the successful transaction occur in result the sales function occur so that organization can achieve its main objectives (Bejou et al., 2005). It is not important for the organizations to establish the CRM department in the organizations because in this way the organizations needs to spend more money and the results are not as per expected (Bhote, 2003). Similarly the Buttle, (2007) has been stated that the loyalty and the satisfaction can be created by the organizations through high level quality and the low price and the employees can play their role in creating loyalty among the customers and this only can be possible if the organizations consider their welfare into their strategies and pay full attention for high salaries and equipping them high quality of trainings and skills can be developed among them instead of spending high amount on the customer relationship managements and offer high quality of products and services at cheap prices as compared to the competitors effectively and efficiently (Chen & Popovich, 2007). The organizations must put attentions on the welfare of client’s and on the welfare of staff members and offer them handsome salaries for creating productive attitude and creating loyalty among the clients by offering the low price products to the customers by identifying their required items and services (Kitzinger, 2006). It is recommended for the organizations to first create strong and long term relationships with the clients and this only can be possible by the customer relationship management because the only customer relationship management is the department that can design and implement such strategies those can be helpful in achieving organization’s goals and objectives effectively as compared to other suppliers (Anderson and Mittal, 2008). Bejou et al., (2005) have been stated that it is customer relationship management responsibility to make strategies for the customers to offer them products at low prices as compared to the other suppliers and the products must be of high quality by identifying their expectations because the expectations can play their role in the sales and in achieving organizational objectives, because Anderson, (2009) has been stated that if the products are available in the market bust those products do not have the features as per customer’s needs and wants than no one will buy, and if someone will buy those products then after using the customer will become angry and there will be no sale. Chen & Popovich, (2007) have stated that the only customer relationship management department can determined the customer’s needs and their wants and can offer them the suitable solution for their problem, and in this way the organizations can be able to manufacture those products those can be as per the customers demand and their needs and the organizations can achieve their objectives. Kitzinger, (2006) has been stated that it is important for the organizations to identify the client’s requirements first and then on the basis of their requirements the products and services must be designed and manufactured and the products must be available to the customers for their buying and consuming, and according to the Saunders, (2012) this is necessary for the organizations and the customer relationship management can also play its role in recognizing the customer’s requirements and needs and these information can be helpful for the manufactures to produce and manufacture products and services as per customer’s requirements for more selling and for creating loyalty, happiness and satisfaction among them to achieve organizational objectives. According to the Looy et al., (2007) that to achieve organizational objectives it is necessary for the organizations to first of all provide the products as per demand and the loyalty can be created by the organizations for successful business operations and customer relationship management can play its role in achieving organizational objectives successfully, and according to the McDonald, (2008) that once the relationship between the organization and the customer must be based on the loyalty and long term relationship is helpful for the organizations to meet their sales targets and sales volume for the growth of organizations. So in this way the identification of customer’s needs and requirements can play their role in achieving organizational objectives.  

According to the Sugandhi, (2007) that the organizations can achieve the goals only when the customers buy the products and after consuming those products and services they become happy means the products and services must provide them the expected results for which they paid the amount (price) and in this way they will come again and they will refer other people to buy the products and services and they will recommend others and when the sales volume will become high then the organizations can make profit for sustaining growth and to become market leader in the United Kingdom. All the flow of work which is related with the identification of clients which is related and leading the organizations in achieving organizational objectives through customer relationship management and its effective strategies by implementing those strategies for identification of customer’s requirements and creating loyalty, satisfaction and happiness among the clients for achieving organizational objectives.

2.3    Frame of reference (Review Literature)

Market Leader Aims and Objectives (Sales, Profit)   Making Sales Growth Sustain the growth  

 

 

As it has been stated in the above figure that the organizations can achieve its objectives in an effective way, with the help and role of CRM department by identifying customer’s expectations

Chapter #: 3    Research Methodology

3.1    Introduction

According to the Anderson and Mittal, (2008) that researchers must select the research methods to conduct the research because the research methods always lead the researchers towards the successful outcomes and in achieving organizational objectives. In this section the researcher will describe and explain the research methods, research techniques, sampling size, sampling techniques, tools those will be used to present data, and making analysis and making conclusion, and all the other resources to gather primary and secondary data.

3.2    Research Method

Here in this section the researcher will describe the research method that will be selected by the researcher to conduct the research, Anderson, (2009) has been stated that the researcher must select one of the research method from qualitative or quantitative research methods or both of them can be used as research method. Here the researcher will select both of the methods to conduct the research for achieving all the aims and objectives of the research. The researcher will select both of the research methods to collect valid and reliable data and to achieve aims and objectives of the research. According to the Bejou et al., (2005) that the qualitative and quantitative both of the research methods are useful for the inexperienced researcher when they have limited time and limited financial resources. 

3.3    Population

All the customers and the customer relationship management staff members are the population of the research and the researcher will select the sample size among this population and “N” represent the whole number of population and “n” represents the sample size and the researcher will distribute the questionnaires (close ended and open ended questions) among them and semi structured interviews will be conducted by the researcher for achieving the aims and objectives of the research. According to the Bhote, (2003) that the researchers must involve the consumers in research process to gather valid and reliable primary data to make analysis and conclusion, similarly Bennett, (2003) has been stated that the researchers must include the departmental staff and especially the key person in the process of research conducting for achieving effective and valid information and to disclose the real factors and key successive factors. The researcher will select the key person from the customer relationship management because these people are most suitable responded and they have the valid and reliable information about the CRM department and its functionality and they have explain the responsibility and its functions more effectively.

3.4    Sample Size

Chen & Popovich, (2007) have been stated that there are some different methods to select the sample size and all the methods have their advantages and disadvantages and it depends on the researchers to select the appropriate method for sample selection. Random sampling technique is appropriate if the whole population is available, and the stratified sampling technique is most suitable when the demographic or specific group must be taken into consideration, systematic method is always adopted by the researcher when a stream of people (like in a street) are available for research conducting like every 5th person and finally cluster sampling is always referred when the respondents are far away like in some different cities and it is hard to conduct the research (Looy et al., 2007), so as the scholars have been stated that for this research the researcher must select the systematic sampling method to select every 9th customer and will distribute the questionnaire among every 9th customer, because the respondents need time to fill the questionnaires and this activity will take time. There must be about 100 respondents when the researchers planned to distribute questionnaires among them and follow qualitative and quantitative research methods (Kitzinger, 2006). The researcher has been decided to choose about 120 customers to distribute questionnaires among them. The researcher will include both the genders without any age, sex, colour and religion and ability discrimination.     

3.5    Source of Secondary Data

Looy et al., (2007) have been stated that the researchers must not include the old literature while gathering secondary data and the researcher must not include own opinion and must use different sources like books, research papers, press releases and printed reports and latest technology must be used like electronic books, electronics journals and reports and websites must be included in secondary data gathering. There are many sources available to gather secondary data and the researcher will use the books with the title of customer relationship management and customer’s expectations identification and importance of customer relationship management, journals, articles, electronic books, electronics journals, different magazines and annual reports on the role and importance of CRM department in the and the selected organization (Sainsbury) website will also be used as a source of secondary data. McDonald, (2008) has been stated that the researchers must include the rational review of literature to prove its title and research question and must avoid including the old research statements because in the old time the technology and culture and trends and needs and wants are not same as today so fresh and latest scholar’s statements must be included in the secondary data.

3.6    Source of Primary Data

According to Yin, (2004) primary data must be valid and most reliable because all the research results based on the primary data quality and on its procedures. Primary data can be gathered by conducting the interviews and by distributing questionnaires among the respondents/ samples. Interviews and the questionnaires are the valid source of primary data (Yin, 2004). Anderson and Mittal, (2008) have been stated that when the researcher could not find out the needed data from the secondary data sources then the researcher conduct the research in the market and collect the primary data about information, knowledge, behaviour, attitude, features, characteristics, awareness, intentions, trends, motivations and problems. According to the Looy et al., (2007) that the researchers have many sources to gather primary data which includes interviews, observations, questionnaires, group discussions etc. The following sources will be used by the researcher to conduct the research.

3.6.1  Case Study

According to (Anderson, 2009) that there are many benefits of case study tool used by the researchers to achieve research objectives, for example when the researcher has shortage of time and less money to spend on the research. Bejou et al., (2005) have been stated that when they have no research conducting past experience then the best option for those researchers is the case study as a tool to conduct the research. The researcher has been discussed the limitations in the first chapter that the researcher has less time and other resource shortage because the researcher has no experience as well. The researcher has been selected the Sainsbury situated in Manchester and has been implemented the CRM strategies as business operations.  

3.6.2  Questionnaires

According to the Chen & Popovich, (2007) have been stated that the researcher can gather primary data by distributing questionnaires among the respondents and the interviews are also the best way to conduct the research when the researchers have limited time and other financial resources limited. Case study is the best way to conduct the research when the researchers have the limitations like time and the other resources (Sugandhi, 2007). The researcher will select the case study “Sainsbury situated in Manchester United Kingdom” and will distribute the questionnaires among the samples by designing the effective questions and both type open ended and close ended will be included and the researcher will include both of them and the questions will be designed by keeping all the aims and objectives in their minds. According to Parasuraman et al., (2003) that, effective questionnaires include open and close ended questions. The researcher can gather valid and reliable primary data by distributing questionnaires among the respondents (Bejou et al., 2005).

3.6.3  Interviews

To gather primary data with real facts and figures the researchers must conduct the interview from key seat holders (Powell and Single, 2003). When there are some limitations associated with the research then the researcher must conduct the interviews with managers, supervisors (Saunders, 2012). So the researcher will conduct the interview with the manager of CRM department and other staff members to find out the importance, role and responsibilities of this department to achieve the research goals and objectives.

3.7    Reliability and Validity

It must be the most concern of the researcher to make sure the data validity and reliability at each and every step (Bejou et al., 2005). The researcher will consider all the ethical considerations as have been discussed in first chapter about the ethical considerations and in this way the data validity and reliability can be assured. According to Morgan, (2004) that data validity and reliability means the consistency and steadiness are the parameters of data validity and reliability.

Chapter #: 4    Project Planning

4.1    Introduction

In this section the researcher will explain the resources associated with this research and cost associated and time associated with this research will be explained and the data presentation tool and data analysis tools will be discussed.

4.2    Data Presentation and Analysis tools

Looy et al., (2007) have been stated that, to avoid by the duplications the researchers can use tables to records data. Graphical representation is most suitable form to represent data proportions and pictorial form is most suitable form to show data associations among them and making analysis is more suitable and helpful (Kitzinger, 2006). The researcher will record the results in tables form first of all and then the data will be selected in excel sheet and proper diagrams will be used to show the relationships among different factors and their associations will be presented by using pie and bar charts.

4.3    Expected Findings

The researcher has the expected outcomes in the form of that the customer relationship management can identify customer’s expectations like price, quality, size, features, volume, guarantee and warrantee and in this way after identifications these factors the organizations can achieve their main objectives (long and short term) in increasing sales by capturing and retaining old and new clients (market share) making profits and finally making growth and sustaining growth to become market leader.

4.4    Cost and Time Schedule

During this research the following table shoed the cost associated with this research. The first table will showed the associated cost and resources and next will show the time required to complete this research project.

Table 1

S. #ResourcesCost (£)
1Travelling70
2Lunch etc.100
3Stationary, Software300
4Total470

Table 2

Problem/IssueX         
Aims and ObjectivesXX        
Secondary DataXXX       
Questionnaires  XX      
Time Schedule in Weeks12345678910
Data Recording and Analysis    XX    
Making Conclusion and recommendation     XXX  
Contingency Plan        XX

4.5    Contingency Plan

The researcher has 2 weeks time as contingency period to make amendments and removing errors as per requirements

Chapter # 5:    Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1    Conclusion and Recommendations

In this section the researcher will first discuss the limitations and then will discuss the ways that he has been adopted to minimize those limitations for validity and reliability of data. Then the researcher will keep in the mind the aims and objectives of the research and then in the light of results and literature review the researcher will make conclusions. The researcher will relate the theories with the research results and will use the secondary data as a background and will use it as and when necessary to prove the results.

5.2    Recommendations

The researcher will mention the weak areas as per research result and will make necessary recommendations in the light of result and theories to improve the CRM activities more useful so that the organizations can achieve its objectives successfully. 

5.3    Further Research

Here in this research the researcher will disclose the other areas which should be taken into considerations for research those can play their role in achieving organizational objectives.

Chapter # 6:    References and Bibliography

a.   Books and Journals

Anderson, E.W. and Mittal, V. (2008) ‘Strengthening the satisfaction-profit chain’ Journal of

Service Research, 23(18), pp: 123-312

Anderson, E.W. (2009) ‘Cross Strategy variation in customer satisfaction and retention’

Marketing Letters, 33(9), pp: 111-180

Bejou, D., Ennuw, C. and Palmer, A. (2005) ‘Trust, ethics and relationship satisfaction’

Journalof Bank Marketing, 13(9), pp: 234-355

Bennett, R. (2003) ‘Relationship formation and governance in consumer markets: Transactional analysis versus the behaviourist approach’ Journal of Marketing Management, 23(12), pp: 33-156

Bhote, K.R. (2003) Beyond Customer Satisfaction to Customer Loyalty. 4th ed. New York: AMA Management Briefing

Buttle, F. (2007) Customer Relationship Management: concepts and tools, 2nd ed. Oxford:

Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann

Chen, I.J. & Popovich, K. (2008) ‘Understanding customer relationship management (CRM): People, process and technology’ Business Process Management Journal, 21(9), pp: 123-234

Engel, J.F., Blackwell, R.D. & Miniard, P.W. (2007) Consumer Behaviour, 2nd ed. London: Dryden Press

Evans, J. R. and Laskin, R. L. (2002) ‘The relationship marketing process: A conceptualization  and application’ Industrial Marketing Management, 22(9), pp: 45-123

Goddard, W. and Melville, S. (2008) Research Methodology: An Introduction, 3rd ed Lansdowne: Juta and Company Ltd

Gummesson, E. (2005) ‘Broadening and Specifying Relationship Marketing’ Asia-Australia

Marketing Journal, 21(13), pp: 123-234

Kitzinger, J. (2006) ‘Introducing focus groups’ British Medical Journal, 22(9), pp: 56-98

Looy, B.V., Gemmel, P. & Dierdonck, A. (2008) Services Management: An integrated Approach, 3rd ed. Essex: Pearson Education Limited

Morgan, D.L. (2004) Focus groups as qualitative research, 4th ed. London: Sage Publications

Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V.A. and Berry, L.L. (2003) ‘A conceptual model of service quality and its implications for future research’ Journal of Marketing, 32(21), pp: 45-132

Powell, R.A. and Single, H.M. (2003) ‘Focus groups’ International Journal of Quality in Health Care, 21(9), pp: 45-167

Saunders, M., Lewis, P. and Thornhill, A. (2012) Research Methods for Business Students 3rd ed. Essex: Pearson Education

Sugandhi, R.K. (2007) Customer Relationship Management. 4th ed. New Delhi: New age

International Publishers

Yin, R. (2004) Case study research: Design and methods.3rd ed. CA: Sage Publishing

a.   Websites

http://www.sainsburys.co.uk/sol/index.jsp [Accessed on 3rd May 2013]

McDonald, L. (2008) Customer Relationship Management – An Overview [online]Available at

<http://www.brillianceweb.com/betterwebdesign/tips_48.aspx&gt; [Accessed on 23rd April 2013]

b.   Bibliography

Denzin, N.K. and Lincoln, Y.S. (2001) Collecting and Interpreting Qualitative Materials London: Sage Publications

Ehrenberg, A.S.C. (2002) ‘Repeat Buying: facts, theory and applications’ Journal of Empirical Generalizations in Marketing Science, 11(9), pp: 113-324

Etzel, M.J., Walker, B.J. & Stanton, W.J. (2001) Marketing International Edition. 3rd ed. USA: The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc.

Gronroos, C. (1990) ‘A service quality model and its marketing implications’ European Journal

of Marketing, 21(9), pp: 56-123

Gronroos, C. (2000) ‘From Marketing Mix to Relationship Marketing: Towards a Paradigm

Shift in Marketing’ Management Decision, 21(9), pp: 112-321

Morgan, R.M. and Shelby D. H. (2004) ‘The Commitment-Trust Theory of Relationship

Marketing’ Journal of Marketing, 24(9), pp: 123-234

Published by MALI

Writer is post-graduated in Computer science, Business Administration, Marketing and Innovation. He has 10 years of business academic research writing experience.

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