Today,service organizations are shifting their focus from “transactional exchange” to “relational exchange” for developing mutually satisfying relationship with customers. Extended relationships are reported to have a significant impact on transaction cost and profitability, and customer lifetime value. Serving the customers, in true sense, is the need of the hour as the customer was, is and will remain the central focus of all organizational activities. The retail sector or supermarkets industry, especially the super markets needs to be purely customer-centric and focus on the customer needs and duly fulfill them.

Customers will not blindly accept poor service quality from a Supermarket. They expect high quality of service in return for the money, they spend in Supermarkets. This paper is an attempt to explain the dark side of CRM in the segment of the Supermarket industry with the help of the ‘Gap Model’ referred to in literature which suggests that gaps in service occur at various instances. The author explains that the gap CRM is a useful tool to explain the dark side partly. There is more to the dark side like privacy issues, unwillingness of customers to build a relationship with the service provider, changing tastes and preferences of the customer. Sainsbury Supermarket has been chosen as a single case study and the research questions have been devised, addresses the industry at large, using a classic example of superior service quality to the customers. Some simple measures to reduce the dark side have been mentioned, which addresses the third and last research question.

The project would contribute as a useful guide for Supermarkets, provide them some valuable information on what the customer expectations are and if they are duly met then service gaps shall not occur. This research shall provide scope for Supermarkets to improve their overall service quality and strengthen their position in the industry. The relevant existing theory has been reviewed and the subject has been explored, using the ‘Gap CRM’ (Parasuraman et al 1998) mainly. Based on the research findings and analysis, recommendation has been given to reduce the dark side at this Supermarket and Supermarkets in general.

Chapter 1:         Introduction

1.1    Problem/ Introduction

People want to spend their lives with ease and for this purpose they want to spend the money to buy the products and they pay for the service just for overcome their problems and for the solution of their problems. Sometimes the customer’s problems are complex and sometimes they have the knowledge about the solution and sometimes they do not have knowledge about the solution (Bhote, 2007). Every person has its own psychology and based on the psychology every person has its own perception and needs and wants and to overcome them each person looking for the different solutions and all the business organizations cannot provide them the solutions as per their expectations because it is complex procedure to find out their expectations. To know about the solution of their problems and they ask to the family people, friends, family friends, colleagues and even then they surf the internet to find the proper solution of their problems. In order to gain the major portion of the market share from the targeted markets anywhere in the world that shows the basic advantage to the business organizations and in this way the organizations also can be able to create effective relationship with the clients and client’s majority also is the main indicator of organizational success (Bowen & Shoemaker, 2005). Some scholars have been stated that the customer relationship management department has so many responsibilities and this is the main reason of this departmental popularity that majority of the organizations have been adopted this department and this department has become the main reason of their sales and profitability due to its functionalities and its functions. When the people have their needs and they search for the product or service to overcome their problem then they buy and they pass through buying decision process (Buttle, 2005). So many factors affect their buying decision process, the customer relationship management with its highly skilled and well proficient workers they help the people in identification of their problems and provide them the solution. But here is a problem that the expectation or actual need or want is necessary to be recognized by the customer relationship management for the successful creation of happiness and positive experience and its positive outcomes. This is not an easy task to identify the actual nature and some time the actual wants and need and requirements of the clients so to solve this problem the customer relationship management can play its role positively and in this way the business organizations can achieve their targets well in time (Caruana et al., 2002). Customer relationship management is the only department that has the competencies to solve the client’s problems efficiently and can provide the organizations benefits in this way, mean in a single time double benefits to the organizations (Chi & Qu, 2009). As quality and price are also matter in the success of the organizations and no organizations can forget these two important factors, the advancement in technological sector and the change in the trends, values and norm especially the cultural change and the other actors like socio cultural factors which includes the income  (Chen & Popovich, 2004), age, fashion these all affect the thinking style and living style and these all factors have an impact on the decision buying behavior and thus the expectations and the needs and wants of the clients always change with the change in the above stated factors so it is very simple that individual’s needs and wants never remain same and this is an opportunity for the business organizations to avail for business profitability. And as the scholar have been stated that customer relationship management have the competencies to identify the individual’s requirements and the business organizations can be more benefited from the role of customer relationship management.

1.2    Title of Research

The role of customer relationship management department in identifying customer’s expectations to achieve organizational objectives (A Case Study of Sainsbury Superstore in Manchester U.K)

1.3    Research Question

What is the role and importance of customer relationship management department in identification of customer’s expectations to achieve organizational objectives?

1.4    Aims and Objectives of the research

In order to find out the objectives of this research the researcher has been divide the main aims into different and small goals called as objectives, as from the above title of the research it is very clear that the researcher was interested in find out the role and the importance of the customer relationship management in finding out the client’s expectations and their needs and requirements to find out the organizational objectives. Here in this researcher the researcher has been divided the main aim of this research that is the importance and the customers services department and its role in recognizing the client’s needs, wants and the expectations efficiently to increase the sales volume and to increase the profit margins and to get more and maximum clients from the market.  

There are the following objectives of this researcher

The researchers must have the aims and objectives of the research before selecting the research methods and adopt the research technique (Bennett, 2008).

The researcher will found out the main duties and functions of the customer relationship management in achieving organizational objectives.

The researcher will find out the significance and magnitude of the CRM department for the benefits of business organizations.

The researcher will find out the customer relationship management and its other relations with the other departments to fulfill the manufacturing requirements and other technicalities and to remove the complexities in the business operations.

The researcher will find out all those other factors those can have their influence on the success in both ways directly and indirectly.

The researcher will also find out those factors those have positive influence and impact in creating loyalty, happiness and satisfaction among the clients and the organization’s employees.

The researcher will find out the factors and skills which are necessary for the employees to handle clients for organizational success

The researcher will find out the factors those can lead the customer relationship management in identification of client’s needs and requirements and the success of the business organizations especially in the superstores in Manchester.

The researcher will find out the expected problems and issues related with the customer relationship management in the selected organizations in the future and also developed the recommendations and conclusions for the selected organizations for improvements and for the wellbeing of the organization.

The researcher will also find out the further study for the future aspects to conduct the other factors for identification of client’s expectations and needs.

1.5    Questions

The researcher has been designed the following questions to conduct this research to fulfill the above stated objectives by dividing these questions among the respondents in the questionnaires and conducting the interviews from the selected superstore management to found out the above stated objectives as well, the researcher has been stated them one by one in the following

What are the main duties and functions of the customer relationship management in the selected superstore?

What are the main connections of the customer relationship management with other departments of the selected organization to achieve its objectives?

How the customer relationship management is useful for the superstores in the United Kingdom in Manchester?

Do the clients have believed in the customer relationship management departmental strategies beneficial and helpful for them?

What is the customer relationship management role in the identifying and reducing the gap between the client’s expectations and perceived quality and how the customer relationship management can retain the clients by reducing that gap?

Which factors can play their role in identifying the factors to understand the gap existence and which factors can reduce them and help the organization to achieve organizational objectives?

Which skills are necessary to handle angry clients and how those skills and competencies can be improved to create loyalty among the customers?

How much the customer relationship management is useful in creating loyalty and satisfaction among the clients in an organization?

Is there any drawback of the existing difference between the expectations and the perceived quality of the products and services?

Why the customer’s expectation’s identification is so important and what are its benefits in achieving organizational objectives?

1.6    Research Scope

There are so many responsibilities of the business organizations in every sector in which those are operating or running their business operations which includes the salaries, electricity bills, payment for incurring the services of professionals, transportation expenses, managerial expenses and other expenses and to achieve the organizational objectives the organizations need some kind of resources. Human resources, financial resources and other resources, in the retail sectors the business organizations needs to achieve the organizational objectives for their existence and for their business operations and for their survival and growth. These organizations can only meet their expenses and their other expenditures when they are in a position to meet and achieve their financial objectives. These organizations can only achieve their financial objectives if they achieve their sales targets. Sales targets or revenue generation leads the organizations to earn profit and this profit leads the organizations towards their growth like in the form of expansion and in bringing more products in the product range. Sales can be made by the organizations if these organizations have the maximum market share, market share means the number or ratio of the clients from the target market, market share is directly proportion to the sales volume. After that the organizations can increase the market share possible if they have created strong binding with the customers and customers have trust on their products and service’s quality and price. Customers have their own perceptions and they have their own expectations, in the market the customers always bring their demand which become opportunity for the customers and organizations through research and development and through market intelligence came to know about the available opportunities and then they produce the products and services to avail those opportunities. When the organizations bring or introduce their products in the market as per customer’s expectations and if the customers buy them and after consuming they found that the results are as per their expectations and as per their demand and if the product’s results proved its worth then the customer’s will come again and they will the product again, and these happy and trusty and loyal clients will also bring other new or angry customers to buy the products then the market share will automatically increase the sales volume and organizations can earn more money in this way. Now problem is that with the change in environment and change in the thinking and life style their demands and their expectations never remained same and expectations always change. This research will find out the importance and role of customer relationship management in recognizing the customer’s expectations and offering them the expected products with respect to quality and cost to create loyalty and to increase the sales volume by identifying customer’s expectations by reducing the gap existing between their expectations and perceived quality of products and features of products and services. The results will able the organizations to amend their customer relationship management strategies and resources and business policies to minimize that gap between perceived or offered quality of products and services and their expectations (exact needs and wants) so that.  

1.7    Ethical Considerations/ Reliability and Validity

The researcher will adopt and follow the procedures strictly in order to gather and collect primary and secondary data very carefully and the validity and reliability of the primary and secondary data is always linked with the ethics. If the researchers follow the ethical considerations then the results are valid and reliable (Anderson, 2007). The researcher must follow the systematic way and must adopt the research method and avoid the unfair means for collecting data and making analysis on that to make conclusions and recommendations (Anderson, 2008). The researcher will not includes the animals, drunken people, and unconscious people as respondents and do not include the irrelevant people as respondents because these people de track the research work and mislead the researchers (Bennett, 2008). Here in this research the researcher will not disclose the data to anyone and will not steel other’s work and will not allow someone to steel his primary and secondary data, similarly the researcher will not use this work to obtain the other academic benefits.

1.8    Research Limitations

There are so many research limitations associated with a research and the skilled and competent researchers always eliminate them by following the research method in systematic way (Feagin, 2004). Due to research limitations the expected results can be infected (Flyvbjerg, 2007). There are some limitations and the major one is the time shortage as the research is completing its MA in marketing and Innovation and he has the time schedule to finalize and complete the research, so first one is the time and second main limitation is the financial resources and third is the experience. The researcher has no such experience of conducting the research in the past, so in order to bring quality of work and to eliminate these research limitations the researcher will generate the financial resource by himself and the case study will be selected by the researcher to conduct this research for obtaining specific objectives and the researcher will also use the interviews and will distribute the questionnaires among the 90 respondents to save the time and to achieve the expected results. The questionnaires and the interviews (mix of semi structured and structured) are the best way to follow these techniques to achieve organizational objectives in limited time period (Gefen, 2003).

Chapter 2:         Literature Review

2.1    Introduction

The researcher has been fully described in detail all the relevant secondary data, the researcher has been used the books, electronic books, articles and journals, electronic articles and electronic journals to gather secondary data and the researcher did not include the 9 years old data because some scholar Getty & Thompson, (2005) have been stated that with the time passage the demand, technology and way of life have been changed so the researchers should not include the 9 years old scholar’s statements in the secondary data. The fresh researchers and the scholar’s statements always bring reliability and validity in the research work (Gronroos, 2003). After gathering the data the researcher created the linked between the gathered data and the objectives of the research and then go ahead to conduct the research.

2.2    Organizational Objectives

Every business organization has its aims and objectives (Looy et al., 2004). According to the Macintosh & Lockshin, (2009) that aims and objectives of an organization are the basically set of statements that describes the purpose of the organization and the main purpose of the organizations are include the survival of the organization, enhancement in the profit and increment in the profit margins, the expansion of the organizational operations and enhancing the market share. The business organizations can achieve their objectives if they have been designed the organizational structures, functions, ethical codes, procedures and other resources and alignment of these resources (Oliver, 2002). Similarly the Parasuraman, (2001) has been stated that the customer relationship management is the department that can achieve the organizational objective efficiently. According to the Jones & Sasser, (2006) that the customer relationship management can achieve the organizational objectives by implementing the organizational strategies and policies and by creating loyalty among the customer’s by creating satisfaction and happiness among them. Similarly the Kandampully and Suhartanto, (2002) have been stated that the customer relationship management can offer the quality of services and products to the customers and the organizational objectives can be achieved by retaining the old customers and by attracting the new customers from the target market and by reducing the difference between the customer’s expectations and perceived quality of products and services. This statement has been supported by the Kim, (2006) by saying that the customer relationship management can play its role in increasing the efficiency of the organization by identifying the customer’s needs and wants and by reducing the gap between the customer’s expectations and perceived quality of products and services.

2.3    Customer Relationship Management Department

According to the Reicheld & Sasser, (2005) that customer relationship management department is consist of the major two kinds of departments first one is the modern technology and second one is the strategies and the mix of strategies and information system those enable the organization to achieve the organizational objectives in well manner by targeting the target market and customers and by paying attention on the customer’s by listening them and by creating loyalty and satisfaction among them.

Source: Author

According to the Reinartz & Kumar, (2004) that the customer relationship management process always revolve around the customer’s staff members, procedures, business operations, marketing strategies and policies and information technology and its application, customer relationship management always evaluates the needs and wants of customers, people, and other staff members and equips them with necessary tools and technologies and skilled them for achieving expected requirements. However according to the Helgesen, (2003) that the customer relationship management always designs the steps and set of steps we call them procedures, strategies and the policies, equipping the staff members with the quality of philosophy and capable them with new techniques and technology and tools and skilled them for achieving organizational objectives. Similarly some scholars have been supported this statement the Gundersen et al., (2003) have been stated that in the retail sector the customer relationship management is the responsible for creating satisfaction and loyalty among the customers and this department is responsible for the handling them and providing them the necessary support, this department is responsible for enhancing the sales and frequency of the customers to make shopping that’s why the organizations can earn handsome money. The Schlesinger and Heskett, (2003) have been supported the above statement by saying that customer relationship management is the fully responsible for creating and designing the strategies for the relationship marketing and the information technology and unites them in a systematic way so that the relationship can be created among the customers for making long term relationship with them for earning more profit and more benefits like growth from them by enhancing the sales volume and the earning more profit from the customers by increasing the market share ratio. Some scholars Reicheld & Sasser, (2005) have been stated that this is the customer relationship management department that provide the key successive opportunities to the organizations to keep and save the customer’s data in a meaningful way and use that data to understand their priorities and their nature and their requirements to offer them those suitable products for making profit and earning more money from market.

Source:            Author

There are so many functions of the customer relationship management department and this department is doing its job well in all organizations if the resources are available to this department. Customer relationship management has the skilled employees and has the sources to design and implement strategies and policies and procedures that can be helpful in identifying customer’s needs and wants and then as per these information the customer relationship management can offer the customer’s the products and services for creating happiness and satisfaction among them (Jones & Sasser, 2006). Some scholars have been stated that the customer relationship management can reduce the gap between the customer’s expectations and the offered products and services that enable the customer’s to buy products and services (Kandampully and Suhartanto, 2002). According to the Jones & Sasser, (2006) that the CRM department is only the extra financial burden on the organizations, because before the evolution of the CRM department the organizations were achieving their objectives successfully and the marketing and sales department were playing their effective role for achieving organizational objectives. this statement was also supported by the Macintosh & Lockshin, (2009) by saying that the organizations must pay their attentions and must keep their focus on the factors those can create awareness among the customers to understand the market demand and also keep in mind the employee’s welfare and all other activities must be considered those can lead the workers towards more productive attitude. It is the wastage of time and finance that the business organizations spend lot of money for the development of CRM department and then the whole structure and investment for this department, whereas the organizations can control their department efficiently through human resource department and by offering discounts and offers of value added services the organizations can achieve their objectives (Kandampully and Suhartanto, 2002). But according to the Jones & Sasser, (2006) the customer relationship management department is the responsible for the gathering data to know the customer’s details and their priorities and their expectations and after analyzing their data and their buying behavior this department also making a relationship between the different departments and making a clear link between them just in order to create the customers value and to make the customer’s chain and linking their different activities in achieving organizational objectives. In order to create values among the customers the customer relationship management designs the strategy and policies and plans and then implement them for retaining, and capturing new customers for increasing sales volume (Soderlund, 2010). It is the customer relationship management that can create the happiness and loyalty among the customers through effective policies and procedures implemented them at the business operations by identifying the customer’s needs and requirements (Kim, 2006).

2.4    Gap Model

In the market the customers have their own needs and wants and to overcome these needs and wants they went to the market to overcome their needs and wants (Jones & Sasser, 2006). The client’s expectations and their needs and wants are very important for the organizations (Jones & Sasser, 2006). Customer’s relationship management has the skilled and competent workers; those have the ability to understand the customer’s requirements and their priorities, the skilled workers have the abilities to analyze the customer’s data and after making analysis, and after handling them they come to know about their needs, wants and their priorities and then they can offer them the products and services as per their requirements and as per their expectations so in this way the difference between their expectations and their demands and offering services and products will be reduced and the happiness, satisfaction and loyalty will be created among them and the organizational objectives will be achieved (Kandampully and Suhartanto, 2002). Some scholars have been stated that there are different ways that can be used by the customer relationship management to identify and to recognize the customer’s expectations and then the organizational objectives can be achieved by the customer relationship management for achieving organizational objectives which are started with the identification of customer’s expectations and the gap model can be helpful for them to understand their expectations (Reicheld & Sasser, 2005). The below model was given by the Gronroos in 2001 that have been discussed all the gaps that can be created by the customer relationship management and because of them the customer relationship management could not perform well (Anderson, 2007). This statement was supported by the Anderson, (2008) by saying that because of those gaps the CRM department remains unable to identify the customer’s expectations and their needs and want in real and all other interests of customer which includes the quality and price of product and services. This importance of reducing these gaps have been stated by Bennett, (2008) that if the customer relationship management can identify the customer’s interests and facts and figure then in this way the business organizations can achieve the objectives effectively and the efficiency of the organizations will be maximum. Reicheld & Sasser, (2005) have been stated that the organizations do not need to understand the needs and wants of the customer in details because it will be the temporary benefits to the organization and in the future the competitors will take advantage of this opportunity, because the customer’s needs and wants always changed with the change in the culture, trends, norm and technology and in their buying behaviours and in their age, so the organizations must pay their attentions on the processes and latest technology to offer the customer’s the best quality of products and services at lowest price. The customers always tends towards lowest price and high quality, the buying power always tend the customer to buy from the suitable supermarkets those offer them the required products and services at cheap prices (Schlesinger and Heskett, 2003).

Bowen & Shoemaker, (2005) have been stated that the CRM department can achieve the organizational objectives by paying its full attention on the given gap model and by considering those key successive factors in the strategies and policies and after implementing those strategies into business operations the organizational objectives can be achieved successfully. Kim, (2006) has been stated that it is not necessary to understand the real facts and figures and the customer’s in depth and in detail because if the organizations will spend their money and other resources in identifying their needs and wants, and process that information and then produce the products for selling or offering, then there will be a big change in the entire procedures and process of industry in producing specific products for adding more quality at cheap price that will be ultimately lose to the organizations and in this way the organization could not achieve its objectives (Bowen & Shoemaker, 2005).

 

                              Gap # 1

Difference between Expectations and offered  

                                         

                                 Gap # 2

Offered them the expected products and services as per requirement  

                

 

                                   Gap # 3          

Gathering customer’s data and their expectation data  

 

                                       Gap # 4

Passing this data to the designing and production department, so that department can produce the products as per their requirements. To create the loyalty and satisfaction among the customers.   

 

        Gap # 5

Source:            Author

Some scholars have been stated that the organizations can achieve their goals and objectives if they come to know the customer’s needs and wants (Bhote, 2007). This statement was supported by the Bowen & Shoemaker, (2005) that the organizations can achieve their goals and objectives if they have customer relationship management department and the strategies and policies have been designed by them and implemented by them successfully, because the main reason of the CRM department is that through this department the customer’s needs and wants can be find out easily and the customer’s requirements identifications successfully can play its role in offering them the best option. Similarly the Buttle, (2005) have been stated that the organizations can achieve their targets effectively if they have CRM policies implemented effectively and efficiently then in this way the organizations can develop and produce the customer’s expected products and services and loyalty can be created among them for achieving organizational goals and objectives. Some scholars have been supported the best solutions of the gap between the customer’s expectations and perceived products and quality and their best solutions that in specific situation they can reduce the difference between the customer’s expectations and perceived products and services values to create loyalty and satisfaction among them (Getty & Thompson, 2005).

EventEvent Handling Solutions
  CRM worker have no skills to understand and collect real information related with customer’s needs and wants  This is the CRM departmental responsibilities to measure the worker’s performance and give them proper feedback and they can also use the surveys to understand their attitude and behavior with the customers and as per necessary requirements the management can arrange for the courses, trainings for the workers to equip them with suitable and required skills to gather data from the customers and make analysis on that data for positive input.
Secondly when the CRM department workers gather the real data and after analysis they pass that information to the relevant department for the manufacturing the products as per customer’s needs and wants then the misperceive occur between the staff members and the manufacturing department.In such situation the CRM department must check the communication effectiveness and must check the altogether system and skills of people sender and receiver and must watch the procedures and process of information sending and receiving, in this way this kind of gap can be reduced and can be removed, and this is very necessary for the CRM department to remove such kind of hindrances.
Due to low quality of product and services the customers make complaints and they do not know how to pass their correct information and that’s why the staff could not interpret the data and due to confusion the gathered information remains wrong and gap exist.  In such kind of situation the CRM department must pay its attention on the product information and on the marketing tools and messages and on the advertisement. If the correct information will be passed through advertisement to the customers then the customers can make complaints if they perceive wrong experience after utilizing that product and they can understand the staff workers about their problem and when the staff worker has the command about product functions then he or she will be in position to handle the complaints and can play its effective role in achieving organizational objectives.

2.5    Customer’s Loyalty and Satisfaction and role of CRM

According to the Anderson, (2007) that the organizations can only achieve their goals and objectives if they can successfully create the satisfaction among the customers and the satisfaction can be only created if the customers are happy with their past experience that they have been perceived after buying and utilizing the products and services, so the organizations must have to pay their attentions to create happiness among the customers. Similarly Anderson, (2008) has been stated that the satisfaction always comes due to the happiness and the satisfaction always leads the customers towards the loyalty and due to loyalty the customers will come again to buy the services and product to overcome their needs. However the Bennett, (2008) has been stated that the customer loyalty can play its role effectively for the organizational achievements. According to the Bhote, (2007) that the organizations can achieve their targets if they have properly implemented CRM department in the business and the CRM has been designed and implement the strategies for creating long and strong relationship with the customers to achieve company goals and objective in minimum time at minimum cost. In the support of this statement Bowen & Shoemaker, (2005) have been stated that the CRM department can play its role in creating the loyalty among the customers because the CRM department has the complete skilled workers, information system, IT support and latest technology, so with the usage of IT and latest technology the CRM department can handle the customers easily and can support them as well in creating loyalty as shown in the following figure.

Manufacturing, delivering products and service, taking customer’s feedback about their experience, review and update the requirements and priorities and record of the customers and then pass this information to the relevant department to review the products and services quality and price and other features.  

Some scholars Zeithaml et al., (2007) are not in the favor of customer relationship management and they said that the organizations are wasting their resources while establishing the customer relationship management department and while allocating other resources to that department for achieving organizational objective through its staff members by creating loyalty among the clients and by recognizing their demands and expectations, similarly Reicheld & Sasser, (2005) have been supported that the loyalty among the customers can be created through the staff members rather than through the CRM departmental staff members and in this way if the organization pay its full attention on the loyalty of employees and make them happy and create loyalty and productive attitude among them then in this way those workers will also achieve the organizational objectives. similarly the Schlesinger and Heskett, (2003) have been stated that the organizations can offer the customer’s the lowest price products with good quality if they create strong and loyalty among the staff members rather than to pay attention for the customer relationship management and in this way the organizations must achieve their targets, those organizations need to adopt the latest technology and the processes to reduce their cost and to increase the technology. According to the Getty & Thompson, (2005) that the new researchers have been proved that customer relationship management have positive impact on the organizational growth and the customer relationship management can only identify the customer’s needs and wants and can create happiness and loyalty among the customers  and in this way the loyal customer will buy the products again and again and they will call their friends and families to buy from them and the organizations can generate more revenue and they can make growth. Similarly the Caruana et al., (2002) have been stated that the customer relationship management is only the department that can play its role in creating loyalty and satisfaction among the customers by identifying the needs, wants, expectations and features f the expected products and services and by offering them the exactly products and services then ultimately and there is no doubt that the customer will be more happy and will be loyal and will come again to buy the products and services from that organization and will prefer to buy from that organization.

Happiness/ SatisfactionLevel of LoyaltyOrganizational growth
Buying, utilizing, getting experience and making comparison among the price and value (satisfaction or dissatisfaction)  Satisfaction will create loyalty, will create trust, customer will repeat and will call the friends and family and family friends to buy from that organization.Customer step in more, repetition, more sales, more generate more revenue, more profit, Organizational Growth

Looy et al., (2004) has been discussed that there is a link between the customer relationship management and the organizational objectives, and to understand this link first of all it is important to understand the link between the customer expectations and the organizational growth, that have been discussed above in the figure.

2.6    CRM and Quality of Services and Customer’s Complaints handling

According to the Buttle, (2005) that the customer relationship management is the department that have the very good and well equipped skilled and well trained staff members those can deliver the products and services to the customers at highest quality and can also handle the customer’s complaints in efficient manners and the skilled and highly trained staff members are the main core and strengths of the customer relationship management department. Whereas Caruana et al., (2002) have been discussed that to achieve the organizational objectives it is very important for the organizations to understand the demand in the market and then forecast the demand volume and then the core requirements of the customers and then check the availability of those products in the market, the customer relationship management gather these all kind of information and customer’s requirements as well and then offer them the expected quality of services and products to create happiness among them. Chen & Popovich, (2004) have been stated that customer relationship management is the department that has the ability to serve the customers with high quality and quality means the response of their call, quick and fast response, delivery of product or services as per their demand, as per their expectations with smile with better and polite and respective attitude and this department can also handle the customer’s complaints in efficient manners and change the mood of the customers and customer become happy and rather than to be angry they become happy and satisfied with the services offered to them. Chi & Qu, (2009) stated that it is very hard to understand the customer’s psyche because there are so many factors those can have their impact on the mood and on the demand of the customers so this is not been possible for the organizations to understand their demands and expectations. Feagin, (2004) have been stated that there is only way to attract new customers from the market and that is to offer them the products and services at lowest rate then they will come to buy those products, because now a day people first of all make comparisons before they buy the products. So the organizations can retain and can attract new clients from the target market by offering them lowest price products and services (Flyvbjerg, 2007). The customer handling is not an easy task but the customer relationship management can handle their complaints and can create loyalty among them by offering them the best solutions about their problems (Gefen, 2003). When the customer buy the products or services and after using they compare the results with values and their expectations then on the behalf of the result they become happy or angry, and the angry customers always make complaints and the organizations have the opportunities in this way to understand their complaints and review their processes and understand their weaknesses and try to improve them and also compensate the angry clients and to develop happiness and loyalty among them (Getty & Thompson, 2005). According to the Gronroos, (2003) that 98% angry clients make or register the complaints if they know the procedures and if the procedures are easy to understand, it means that organizations have another opportunities for creating and building strong and trusty relationship with customers by handling their complaints in effective way and with a little bit hard work by giving them the expected items and by compensate them the organizations can retain the old clients. And if the response of the staff member is quick and attitude and the behavior remain good, polite and kind and with smile face then the quality of services and product both will create loyalty and happiness among them.

2.7    Conceptual Framework of Literature Review

2.7.1  Introduction

In the following figure the researcher has been designed the conceptual framework for the above discussed review of literature so that the flow of work can be understandable for all people.

2.7.2  Explanation

Every organization has the objectives to achieve them the organizations invest money and arrange other resources and procedures and design the structures and all other struggle made by the other departments to achieve some kind of purposes that are called the aims and objectives of the organizations. So these organizations pay fully their attention on the customers because the services and products made by the organizations are always consumed by the customers and they try to remain happy their customers in the market, because they know that if the customers are happy then their products will be sold out otherwise there will be no business. In the above figure it has been shown that the organizational objectives can be achieved with the help of customer relationship management and especially with its skilled and equipped workers. The customer relationship management can play its role for the identification of customer’s needs and requirements (expectations) and in this way that information after analysis pass to the manufacturing department and in this way there are also benefits first of all the identification of client’s expectations and their requirements, secondly the resource wastage will be stooped and accurate information about the market demand will be passed to the manufacturing department. After that the products and services will be offered to the customers at cheap prices as compared to the competitors and the prices can be lowered by implementing the latest technology and procedures to manufacture the products. Then by handling the customer’s complaints the customer relationship management will also create the happiness that will lead them to wards loyalty and finally the organization can achieve the targets. The role of customer relationship management is also important from customer expectation’s identification to delivering them the expected products and services the customer relationship management plays its positive role and this because cause of organizational objectives in efficient manners. The customer relationship management can reduce the difference between the customer’s needs and wants and their expectations and can offer them suitable products and services to bring happiness and loyalty among the clients at maximum level. The customer relationship management department has its strengths which includes the highly skilled, well equipped and professional and dedicated people those are handling, keeping, updating taking feedback, opinion, views of the customers and making analysis on their data and offering them the best solutions just to offer them products and services as per their requirements by reducing or by minimizing the difference between the customer’s expectations and offered products and services. After using the products the client may could not be happy with the results it means there are two kinds of possibilities either the product was not suitable for the customer either the product features were poor and the customer become anger with the organization. Here is also an opportunity for the organizations to make and create happiness in angry customers by handling their problems and by removing, replacing and by compensating them the organizations can bring happiness among them. And all this is only possible due to effective customer relationship management department, because this department has the ability to deliver the customer valued and quality of product and services and by identifying the customer’s expectations offer them the expected products and services is playing its role for achieving organizational objectives.

Chapter 3:         Research Methodology

3.1    Introduction

In order to reduce the cost and to save the time and money and to bring quality in the work the researchers must adopt effective research method that will lead him towards success and will provide him a map (Anderson, 2008). The researcher has been discussed the research method adopted by him during this research conducting and the tools and the research techniques have been discussed by the researcher in this section. The research method that includes the sampling techniques, sampling selection, interviews and questionnaires and source of primary and secondary data has been discussed by the researcher in this section. it is very important for the researchers to keep the record of the research which includes the research techniques, sample size, procedure of selection of samples from the whole population, source of primary and secondary data, recoding system like tables, electronic form or printing format (Anderson, 2007).

3.2    Aims and Objectives of the Research

The researchers must have the aims and objectives of the research before selecting the research methods and adopt the research technique (Bennett, 2008). The main objective of this research is to find out the role of customer relationship management department in reducing and minimizing the difference between the customer’s expectations and perceived quality of products and services to create happiness, loyalty and satisfaction among the customers in achieving organizational objectives.

The researcher will found out the main duties and functions of the customer relationship management in achieving organizational objectives.

The researcher will find out the significance and magnitude of the CRM department for the benefits of business organizations.

The researcher will find out the customer relationship management and its other relations with the other departments to fulfill the manufacturing requirements and other technicalities and to remove the complexities in the business operations.

The researcher will find out all those other factors those can have their influence on the success in both ways directly and indirectly.

The researcher will also find out those factors those have positive influence and impact in creating loyalty, happiness and satisfaction among the clients and the organization’s employees.

The researcher will find out the factors and skills which are necessary for the employees to handle clients for organizational success

The researcher will find out the factors those can lead the customer relationship management in identification of client’s needs and requirements and the success of the business organizations especially in the superstores in Manchester.

The researcher will find out the expected problems and issues related with the customer relationship management in the selected organizations in the future and also developed the recommendations and conclusions for the selected organizations for improvements and for the wellbeing of the organization.

The researcher will also find out the further study for the future aspects to conduct the other factors for identification of client’s expectations and needs.

3.3    Research Methods

According to the Bhote, (2007) that the researchers must select the research method before they start to conduct the research and the research must be based on the specific aims and objectives. The researchers must select the best one option (research method) as per the aims and objectives to conduct the research and the research method always leads the researchers towards the success (Bowen & Shoemaker, 2005). The researchers must use the appropriate research method to conduct the research, first of all the researchers must know the limitations of their research and then they follow the research objectives and then according to their circumstances and resources they must follow the research method (Buttle, 2005). The research wants to achieve the research objectives then they must follow the research method very strictly, in this way they can gather the valid and reliable data (Caruana et al., 2002). It depends on the aims and objectives of the research to choose the effective and best research method follow by the researcher to achieve the organizational and research objectives in effective way (Chen & Popovich, 2004). According to the Caruana et al., (2002) that the researchers can use the qualitative or quantitative research method to conduct the research in effective way to achieve the organizational objectives, and the researchers can use both of them to conduct the research but it depends on the nature of the research on the nature of aims and objectives of the research. The researcher has been decided to choose the both qualitative and quantitative research methods to conduct the research. Because in this research the researcher needs the statistical data as well as the researcher main output will be the conclusion and recommendations.

3.3.1  Quantitative Research Method

In the quantitative research method the researchers gather the data and make analysis on the data that has been gathered by the researcher from some respondents and in this way the researchers first of all define the population and then after defining the population then based on the attributes and characteristics the researchers use techniques to select the respondents (Bhote, 2007). In order to make conclusions and the recommendations the researchers always collect the data through different means, some researcher use the questionnaires, observations, interviews to collect primary data (Bowen & Shoemaker, 2005). The quantitative research method will allow the researchers to make different analysis by using different techniques to gather primary data (Chen & Popovich, 2004). In quantitative research method the researcher play with the quantity rather than the quality.

3.3.2  Qualitative Research Method

According to the Getty & Thompson, (2005) that the researchers need to fist make hypothesis and then after making it they follow the procedure to conduct the research as per the research aims ad objectives, in this way the researchers need to conduct the research deeply as compared to the quantitative research methods. In the qualitative research methods the researchers need to select the best one case study one or more it depends on the available time and other resources and then the researchers make plan to conduct the interviews structured or unstructured and it depends on the nature and aims and objectives of the research and then they design the questionnaires for the research process. As compared to the quantitative method there is no involvement of statistical data because in this way the researchers only come to know about the motivational factors, reasons and understandings rather than to know the statistical data, all the conclusions and recommendations are made by the researchers always depends on the qualitative bases.

3.4    Research Tool (Case Study)

According to the Kandampully and Suhartanto, (2002) that the research tool have their own importance and the researchers must select the research tool before they start to conduct the research. There are so many benefits of the case study to the researchers and when the researchers have some limitations then the researchers must select the case study as a tool if they have short time and other limitations, in that situation the case study is very suitable and helpful for the researchers with shortage of time limitation and the researchers can gather valid and reliable primary data (Kim, 2006). Some other scholars have been stated that to save time and to bring more validity and reliability the researchers can select the case study as research tool (Looy et al., 2004). The researcher has been selected the Sainsbury supermarket in the United Kingdom situated in the Manchester center. The researcher has been chosen the Sainsbury super market in the United Kingdom as a case study tool due to some reasons

At the Sainsbury supermarkets the customer relationship management is working with its all features and have been designed the marketing plans and strategies for the handling customers and for achieving organizational objectives effectively.

The customer relationship management at Sainsbury supermarket is in operations with all its features and implementing its strategies and operations and integrating all other departments for achieving organizational objectives and the customer relationship management department is striving for recognizing the customer’s requirements and their expectations positively and effectively.

The customer relationship management department is also record keeping the customer’s data and also updating their records and assessing their priorities and their requirements and then after gathering the data the department make analysis on the data and made decisions on the behalf of that gathered data and then made the marketing decisions by considering these data into their minds while designing the 4 P’s of the marketing.

3.5    Source of Data

According to the Kim, (2006) that the researcher can use must select the source for primary and secondary data because it is very important for the researchers to find out the source for primary and secondary data. The validity and reliability of the primary and secondary data is always based on the source of data (Looy et al., 2004). The researcher has been defined the source for primary and secondary data which have been discussed below.

3.5.1  Secondary Data Source

According to the Gronroos, (2003) that the researchers must select the valid theories and scholar statements to gather secondary data and the resources must be valid and fresh scholar’s statements to gather valid and reliable secondary data. The researchers can use the books, electronics books, research papers, electronic research papers, articles and electronics articles and journals and electronics journals, websites and annual reports, news papers, press releases for gathering secondary data (Gundersen et al., 2003). The researcher will use the online resources which include the libraries, online books, online journals and articles and books, online newspapers and Sainsbury supermarket website on the topic of CRM role in identifying customer’s needs, wants and their expectations to gather secondary data. Then the researcher will make critics on the data as well and make it rational.

3.5.2  Primary Data Sources

The researchers can conduct the interviews and can distribute the questionnaires among the respondents to gather primary data, similarly the researcher can conduct online and offline surveys and can make observations on time watching the situations for gathering primary data (Helgesen, 2003). According to the Jones & Sasser, (2006) that the researchers can use many sources for gathering primary data which includes the online and offline sources, which includes the observations, case study tools, questionnaires and interviews and group discussion the researchers can gather valid and reliable primary data.

3.5.2.1          Questionnaires

The researchers can gather primary data of more consistency and of more reliability by distributing the questionnaires among the samples and the questionnaires must be designed by the researcher if he or she has the necessary skills to develop the questionnaires and the researcher must have the knowledge about the open ended, close ended, rating scale and all other types of questions and before designing the questions the researcher must have the knowledge about the aims and objectives of the research (Jones & Sasser, 2006). The distribution of the questionnaires and developing of questionnaires is not easy but it is a complex way to gather primary data (Kandampully and Suhartanto, 2002). The cheapest and quick way to gather valid and reliable primary data the researchers must use questionnaires for gathering primary data (Kim, 2006). The researchers must understand the communication system and its requirements and must understand the customer’s level of understanding then the researchers must develop the questions and the questionnaires must be distributed among the relevant respondents then the researchers can gather reliable and valid data (Looy et al., 2004). The real way to gather primary data and valid data the researchers must use the questionnaires technique (Macintosh & Lockshin, 2009). Minimum 80 questionnaires must be distributed among the respondents and each questioner must have the about 22 questionnaires in a questionnaire (Oliver, 2002). The researcher has been decided to distribute the 90 questionnaires among the males and females respondents with the age range from 20 to 60 years old respondents. The researcher has designed and develops the 20 questions for a questionnaire and 90 samples have been selected by the researcher to distribute among them.

3.5.2.2.         Interviews

According to the Bhote, (2007) that the interview is basically the two way conversation between the interviewee and interviewer with a specific purpose in which the researcher prepare the questions to gather real facts and figures as per the research aims and objectives. Similarly some scholars have been stated that to get the information on a specific topic and to get the facts for the specific area the researcher can gather the information from the respondents by conducting an interview, because the interviews are the effective techniques (Bowen & Shoemaker, 2005). The researchers can use the best and useful techniques and methods which includes the surveys and experiments and observations to collect real and fact information from the respondents for gathering primary data (Buttle, 2005). The researchers can use one of the interview technique structured that means closed interview or unstructured means open style of interview to gather primary data (Caruana et al., 2002). The researchers must conduct the interview with the field workers or with the administration to get valid and reliable data, because the administration and the field workers have the real and facts about the problems and advantages of technology and about the procedures, processes and strategies, more they have the experience about the real work and they have knowledge about the problems and their solutions (Chen & Popovich, 2004). The interviewer can use the open ended questions to gather answers in detail and the validity and reliability of the data is depend on the researcher skills and qualities and the quality of the questions (Chi & Qu, 2009). According to the Bhote, (2007) the researcher can conduct the interview for a specific problem. The researchers must try to avoid the unstructured interviews because in this way the researchers can become double minded because of the open questions and it will affect the validity and reliability of the primary data (Buttle, 2005). The researchers must use the structured type of interview because in this way the researchers can gather reliable and valid answers and those answers will be free of biasness (Bowen & Shoemaker, 2005). The researcher has been decided to conduct the structured interview and for that purpose the researcher has been designed the close questions to ask the respondents to gather primary data and the researcher has been designed the questions by keeping in mind and by considering the aims and objectives of the research. Together the primary data by using the interview technique the researchers must conduct the interview with the key position holders in an organization because in this way they can get the valid and most reliable data from them and the data will not contain the biasness and the researchers must make appointment with them and in advance let them know about the topic of the interview (Helgesen, 2003). The researchers must avoid to un necessary questions and they must avoid to make assumptions because assumptions and biasness always de track the researchers to achieve their aims and objectives (Jones & Sasser, 2006).

3.6    Population

According to the Bhote, (2007) that the population is the basically set of the people or population may be the set of the events from which the researchers can select the samples and all those people must have the same characteristics, they must be homogeneous not heterogeneous (Bowen & Shoemaker, 2005).

3.6.1  Sample

According to the Buttle, (2005) has been defined the sample that, sample is the group of people selected by the researchers from the population with some specific goals and objectives like respondents, to get some information from them, being the representatives of the population the respondents (samples) respond to the researchers. According to the Caruana et al., (2002) that there are different types of methods that can be used by the researchers to select the best sample from the population, those have been discussed below.

3.6.1.1           Non-Random Method

 The non random selection of the sample is the method that is used by the researchers for the medical purposes and the medical researchers use this technique to gather external validity of the study, and in this method the samples do not belong to the large population, whereas in this method the samples recognize the facts and figures about the samples (Chen & Popovich, 2004).

3.6.1.2           Stratified Random Sampling

In this way the researchers divide the whole population into small groups for example group of people with specific age range, with specific color or size or height then they select the samples from the sub groups (Flyvbjerg, 2007). The researcher will not use this method because the researcher needs to consider the whole population and will include the all customers with their age and will include both genders in the respondents.

3.6.1.3           Proportional Sampling

This method is used by the researchers to make it sure that the sub groups are well maintained and in the sub groups the people have contained the relevant characteristics or not, for example in a sub group the ratio of male to female is 20:30  (Gefen, 2003).

3.6.1.4           Cluster Sampling

In the cluster sampling the researchers get the samples when there is large number in a population and it is very important for them to find out specific factors and variables, and they need very small number of samples from the whole population  (Getty & Thompson, 2005).

3.6.1.5           Simple Random Method

In this way the researchers other than the medical study adopt this method to identify the samples to gather facts and figures about non medical factors like in the business related researches the researcher use this method (Chi & Qu, 2009). The researchers use the simple random method to find out the samples to conduct the research in different areas and they want to disclose the different variables and factors to find out the motivations and reasons of motivations when there is a large population and it is not been possible for the researchers to involve whole population in the process of research method and then they identify the samples from the population (Feagin, 2004). The researcher in this research will use the random number like 5th or 6th or 3rd or 11th customer in the Sainsbury supermarket and then every 5th or 11th or 7th customer will be considered as respondent. While conducting the research in customer relationship management the researchers must include both the male and female as respondents and their age must be starting from the 20 years and maximum age should be 65 but no more 65 and not less than 20 years, then in this way the researchers can achieve their goals and objectives associated with the specific research (Gronroos, 2003). The researcher must identify the respondents before dividing the questionnaires among them and must make the schedule before going to conduct the interview (Gundersen et al., 2003). The researcher has designed the table that shows the sample size.

GenderRespondentsAge Range in (Years)RatioTotal
Male4520——–6550%45
Female4520——–6550%45
Total90  90

From the above table it has been mentioned that the researcher will distribute the questionnaires among the 90 samples and the researcher will distribute the questionnaires among males and females and there will be no any kind of discrimination on the basis of religion, color, ethnicity, disability, young or old, the researcher will not include his own opinion in the primary data. The researcher will make analysis on the data by using authentic statistical tools.

Chapter 4:         Data Analysis and Presentation

4.1    Introduction

The researcher has been discussed the tools and ways in this section in detail to conduct this research. The researchers must use the tables to record the primary data to avoid the duplication of result (Bhote, 2007). The researchers must calculate the ratios and percentage of the numerical values and also find out the relationship among the different variables and must understand their dependencies on each other (Bowen & Shoemaker, 2005). The pictorial representation of data can be more effective as compared to simple numerical values do the graphs, bar charts and pies charts can be used by the researchers to represent the outcomes of their research (Caruana et al., 2002). Sainsbury is the big supermarket in the United Kingdom that is offering its best services and products in different areas like grocery, toys, clothing, kitchen stuff, toilet stuff, bakery, food items, cosmetic, embroidery, pharmacy and optician and clothing and in financial sector as well. The Sainsbury has customer relationship management department that is running its strategies and business operations successfully with other departments and trying its best in identifying the customer’s requirements and their needs and wants and reducing the differencing between the requirements of customers and the quality of products and services offered to them for creating happiness and loyalty among them for achieving organizational objectives.   

4.2    Questionnaires

The researcher has designed the following questions by keeping in mind all the aims and objectives of this research and the researcher has the sufficient skills and abilities to design the questions open ended and close ended and their results have been also discussed here below.

Q:        What is your main purpose to visit Sainsbury?

Answer:

AnswersMaleFemaleTotal
For a visit004
For shopping41403
For making price comparison0040
For job interview1033
With family member352
Total454090

Some scholars have been stated that the customer step in the super markets to buy the products and the hiring the services to solve their problems and to overcome their needs and wants for which they entered the supermarkets (Anderson, 2007). The researcher wants to know the main purpose of the customer’s that they came to the supermarket, as in the tables it has been showed that majority of the people came for buying products or hiring the services from the super market.

The researcher came to know after making the bar charts and pie charts. The charts are showing that majority of the people 91% of the people come to the Sainsbury supermarket to buy the products and hiring the services. The people those come with their family members to support them and to help them while making their decisions for buying products and for hiring the services from the superstore their ratio is 7% only and the people those came for job interview is only 2 percent and the people those came for job interview are 0% and the only for general purpose is also 0%, so from the above results it has been cleared that majority of the people come to buy products.

Q:        Are you regular customer at Sainsbury as shopper?

Answer:

RespondentsYesNoTotal
Male321345
Female351045
Total672390

The table and the bar chart shows that majority of the people are the regular shoppers those buy the products and services from the Sainsbury supermarket and their percentage is 74% whereas the rest of 26% are the people those come to buy from the Sainsbury but they are not regular buyers. The 26% is not negligible percentage and the opportunity is available in the market to attract new customers from the market and this figure shows the performance of customer relationship management at Sainsbury as well.

Q:        Are you satisfied with the products and services offered by the Sainsbury?

Answer:

RespondentsYesNoTotal
Male331245
Female321345
Total652590

According to the Bennett, (2008) that the satisfaction always leads to the loyalty and satisfied customers always play their role for achieving organizational objectives in increasing the sales volume and the in increasing the revenue for the organization. The researcher has been designed this question to know about the satisfaction level of the customers.

From the above table, pie chart and bar chart it has been cleared that the only 72% of the people are satisfied with the products and services of the Sainsbury whereas only 28% of the people are not satisfied with the products and services of the supermarket. The 28% is a big percentage which shows the performance of the customer relationship management and on the other hand the CRM department could not perform its duties and its strategies are not good and its policies are not effective and they need to review their policies and strategies and plans to find out the weaknesses and after improving their strategies and policies they must avail the opportunities for maximizing the market share for the supermarket.

Q:        Do you think that the CRM department is playing its role in identifying your requirements and needs and wants at Sainsbury supermarket?

Answer:

RespondentsYesNoTotal
Male301545
Female271845
Total573390

Some scholars have been stated that the customer’s requirements and their needs and wants are the main important players in the CRM departmental in designing effective strategies and policies for achieving organizational objectives (Chi & Qu, 2009). The researcher has designed the above question as per in the light of above scholar’s statement and the results were recorded by the researcher which showed that majority of the responded that they have believe in the role of CRM department.

The above pie and bar charts are showing that 63% of the people are completely satisfied with the products and services offered by the Sainsbury and 37% of the respondents have been responded that they are not satisfied with the products and services. According to the scholars that after consuming the products and services the customers came to know about the effectiveness and efficiency of the products, and they become angry or satisfied, if they receive the results as per their expectations and as per their needs and demands then they become happy and satisfied otherwise they become angry (Anderson, 2007). And 37% of the people are not satisfied with the products and services of the organization, which is not negligible amount.

Q:        Why do you buy from Sainsbury, select the best option?

High Quality

Lower Prices

Full range of Products

Unique Features of Products

Value added services

Money back Guarantee

Answer:

FactorsYesNoTotal
Quality30  
Price12  
Product Range8  
Unique Features5  
Value added services5  
Money Back Guarantee   
Convenient30  
Total90 90

Helgesen, (2003) has been stated that the people buy from super stores to overcome their needs and wants if the products are available, some people buy because of quality, lower prices, unique features, long expiry dates and some people are convenient because their home location is near the superstores, they do not have time to go at other places. So the researcher has made the above question to know about the main reason of the customer that they buy the products from the superstore. As shown in the table that the majority of the people buy from the Sainsbury supermarket because they found high quality of items from the supermarket, second one due to low price and a majority of the people just buy the items because they are most convenient it means that their homes are near the store, or the opening and closing time is suitable for them.

Both the pie and bar charts have been showed the main reason and the main interest of the buyers are quality of the products which is about 33%, and after that 13% are the people buy from supermarket because of the low prices, 9% buy because of the products range, or availability of the products, 6% buy because of the value added services, 6% because of the unique features of the products and 33% of the people buy because they are convenient.

Q:        Why you buy the products from the superstores, select the appropriate option?

To overcome their needs and wants

For enjoyment

For satisfaction

For loyalty

For spending money

Answer:

Reason of buying products and servicesYesNoTotal
To overcome needs and wants90090
Enjoyment000
Satisfaction000
Loyalty000
Spending money000
Total90090

According to the Parasuraman, (2001) market is a place where buyer and seller meet together, the buyer came to overcome its needs and wants and seller also come to sale the products. The researcher wants to know the reason that why people buy the products from the supermarkets and about 100% responded that they come to buy products to solve their problems.

Q:        Do you believe that products and services as per your expectations and requirement can create happiness and satisfaction among you?

Answer:

RespondentsYesNoTotal
Male45045
Female45045
Total454590

According to the Looy et al., (2004) that the CRM department can identify the customer’s expectations and other factors and can implement those strategies and policies to understand customer’s priorities for achieving organizational objectives, if the CRM department has the proper resources and well trained and equipped workers. The researcher has designed the question to understand the effectiveness of customer’s expectations. And the result was stored in the above table.

The above table, pie and bar charts have been showed that 100% of the customers have been responded that their expected and required products can create happiness and satisfaction among them.

Q:        Are you sure that if Sainsbury supermarket offer you products as per your expectations then you will buy the products from them?

Answer:

RespondentsYesNoTotal
Male45045
Female45045
Total90090

The organizations can maximize their market share if they provide the customers products and services as per their requirements and their expectations (Oliver, 2002). The researcher has designed this question to understand the opportunity in the market, that if the organizations provide the customers as per their needs and requirements then they can maximize the market share.

1005 customers have been stated that yes, if they perceive the products and services as per their expectations and the requirements then they will buy from the supermarket to overcome their needs and wants.

Q:        Which factors are important in identification of your expectations, select the appropriate so that the CRM department must consider them for developing the strategies to identify your expectations?

Low Price

High Quality

Unique Features

Volume and size

Ingredients

Risk Free

Low carbon emission

Range of Products

Availability of products

Money back guarantee

Answer:

FactorsYes
Low Price87
High Quality90
Unique Features88
Ingredients80
Risk Free90
Low Carbon Emission90
Money Back Guarantee90
Range of Products`90
Availability of products90

According to the Schneider and Bowen, (2008) that there are so many factors that can help the CRM department in identifying their expectations and the CRM department can play positive role in reducing the difference between customer’s expectations and offered quality of services and products.

Majority of the respondents have been responded that the main factors are low price, high quality, unique features, risk free, money back guarantee, ingredients and low carbon emission and availability of the products and range of products these factors can play their role in the identification of their expectations. And the CRM department can play its role in identifying their expectations and can create satisfaction among them. Majority of the respondents have been responded 100% in the favor of the asked factors.

Q:        Are you sure that the customer relationship management is helpful for you in handling your complaints and delivering you the best opinion and solution for your problems?

Answer:

RespondentsYesNoTotal
Male43245
Female42345
Total85590

Customer relationship management can provide the best solution and can handle the client’s complaints in effective way, and the skilled and equipped workers can provide the customer’s support in creating loyalty and satisfaction among them with their productive behavior and attitude (Jones & Sasser, 2006).

The respondent came to know that 94% customers have been stated that they are sure that the customer relationship management is helpful in handling their complaints and offering them the best option. Whereas the only 6% are not agreed with the statement and they do not believe in CRM activities.

Q:        Are you sure that CRM department can create satisfaction and happiness among you while identifying your expectations and offering you products and services as per your requirements?

Answer:

RespondentsYesNoTotal
Male41445
Female40545
Total81990

Some scholars have been stated that the only CRM department is responsible for creating loyalty and satisfaction among the customers while handling their complaints and offering them best solution, and it can be only done if the workers have sufficient resources and authorities.

90% of the customers have been responded that CRM department can create satisfaction by handling their complaints and can offer them the best solution of their problems. Only 10% are not believe in the efforts and strategies and policies of the CRM department, this is because of their past experience or they may do not have knowledge about the importance of CRM department.  

Q:        Do you agree that there is a difference (gap) between your expectations and products and services’ quality those you received from the Sainsbury supermarket?

Answer:

RespondentsYesNoTotal
Male45045
Female45045
Total90090

There exist a gap between the customer’s expectations and the quality of the services and products of the organization those customers offered and in the result the customer’s become angry (Helgesen, 2003). The researcher wants to know about the difference between the customer’s expectations and the offered quality of products and services, and the above table showed that all the respondents have been responded that yes there is a difference.  

The above bar chart and the given below pie chart have been represented that 100% of the respondents have been responded that there is a difference between their expectations and the quality of the products and services. No single respondent said that the products and services are as per his or her expectations.

Q:        Are you sure that CRM staff member’s attitude and behavior is good and they behave with you politely and they tried their best to understand your problems?

Answer:

RespondentsYesNoTotal
Male351045
Female331245
Total682290

CRM department can create satisfaction and can identify customer’s problems and their other expectations by their attitude and their behavior (Kandampully and Suhartanto, 2002). The researcher wants to know the attitude and behavior of the CRM department for identifying customer’s needs and wants.

The researcher came to know that the 76% of the customers are agree that the CRM departmental workers attitude and behavior is so good and they treat their customers in well manner to identify their expectations and offering them best solution of their problems. But the remaining 24% which is not negligible ratio are not happy with the CRM employee’s and their attitude.

Q:        Are you sure that CRM department is trying its best to reduce the difference between your expectations and the quality of products and services those you perceived?

Answer:

RespondentsYesNoTotal
Male331245
Female291645
Total622890

According to the Macintosh & Lockshin, (2009) that CRM department can increase the quality of services and products and can find out the solution for the customers for achieving organizational objectives

The 69% of the respondents have been responded that the CRM department is reducing the difference between their requirements and expectations and quality of items and customers whereas the 31% of the respondents are not agreed with the researcher statement. And these are significant customer those have not believe in the CRM department’s efforts.

Q:        Are you sure that CRM department can offer you the expected products and Services and can create happiness and loyalty?

Answer:

RespondentsYesNoTotal
Male351045
Female351045
Total702090

The researcher made this question to understand the role of CRM department in creating loyalty and happiness among customers because some scholars have been stated that CRM department can create loyalty among the customer (Oliver, 2002).

The charts showed that the 78% of the respondents has been responded that CRM department can offer them the expected products and services whereas 22% of the people do not believe in the CRM department efforts for offering them the expected items and services.

Q:        Do you agree that CRM department can increase the market share after attracting new customers from the target market and can create satisfaction among them?

Answer:

RespondentsYesNoTotal
Male40545
Female41445
Total81990

This question was made by the researcher to understand the knowledge and awareness of the customers about the customer relationship management role in increasing market share for the organization.

The respondents have been responded and about 90% which is the clear majority have been responded in positive sense that yes the CRM can play its role in increasing market share from target market, but only 10% people were not agreed with the researcher.

Q:        Please select the select the best options with priority that which factor or factors can be helpful in creating loyalty among the customers?

Answer:

FactorsResponseTotal
Fast response9090
Attitude and behaviour9090
Promises9090
Price Discounts9090
Brand positioning9090

Reicheld & Sasser, (2005) have been stated that there are so many factors those are very important to consider by the CRM department in creating loyalty among customers which includes quick response, brand positioning, honor promises, employee’s attitude and behavior and high quality and price discounts.

All the respondents have been responded that the successive factors are fast responses, attitude and behavior of workers, price discounts, promises and bran images or brand positioning are the main factors those can play their role for creating loyalty among the customers. All the respondents have been responded 100% that each factor is important and necessary.

Q:        What was employee’s response when you registered complaint against a product or service and are you satisfied with the response and quality of response?

Answer:

RespondentsMaleFemaleTotal
Yes383977
No7613
Total454590

The 86% of the respondents have been responded that they are satisfied with the response of the CRM workers. They registered the complaints against the product and services and they get the feedback and they are satisfied with the feedback. Only the 14% are not satisfied with the response and feedback of the workers in handling their complaints.

Q:        Do you agree that CRM department has skilled and well authorized workers those provide you quick response?

Answer:

RespondentsYesNoTotal
Male321345
Female331245
Total652590

Customer relationship management can provide customers quality of services because they have the highly skilled workers (Oliver, 2002). The researcher designed this question because the researcher was interested to know about the skilled workers at CRM department in Sainsbury super market.

The 72% respondents have been responded that the staff workers of CRM department are well equipped and they have sufficient skills to handle their complaints. The remaining 28% have been responded that the CRM department did not have the skilled workers.

Q:        Do you agree that CRM department take your feedback properly and update your priorities and keep in touch with you in understanding your requirements?

Answer:

ResponsesMaleFemaleTotal
Yes351045
No331245
Total682290

The CRM department must take customers feedback and their opinion to redesign and review the marketing 4P’s for creating happiness and satisfaction among the customers (Parasuraman, 2001).

The majority of the respondents like 76% have been responded that CRM department is taking their feedback and their opinion to identify their expectations and to offer them the expected items and services the 24% customers have been stated that the customer relationship management is not taking feedback from the customers.

Q:        Do you agree that the CRM department must improve the skills and knowledge and well equip the CRM workers and must improve the communicational skills to handle your complaints?

Answer:

ResponsesMaleFemaleTotal
Yes153045
No202545
Total355590

Customer relationship management must review and update the skills and knowledge of the customers so that they can perform well and can contribute effectively in achieving organizational objectives (Parasuraman, 2001).

The respondents have been responded that 39% have been responded that the staff members need to update their skills and knowledge because these respondents have believe that it is necessary to update their skills and competencies to find out their problems and offering them best solution. 61% have been stated that the CRM department employee’s have sufficient skills and equipment and knowledge to understand their requirement.

Q:            Are you sure that there exist a relationship between the satisfaction and happiness, loyalty and sales of organization?

Answer:

ResponsesMaleFemaleTotal
Yes434285
No235
Total454590

There exist a direct relationship between the expected products and happiness and happiness always create satisfaction and the satisfaction always leads the customers towards success, and when the customer will become loyal that will come again to buy and will share happiness among others being social responsible and in this case the sales will increase (Powell & Single, 2007) .

About 94% have been responded that yes there exist a relationship between the customer’s loyalty and the increase in the organizational objectives. Only the 6% have been responded that no there is no any relationship between sales increase and the loyalty of customers.

4.3    Interviews

The researcher has designed the questions close ended for the structured interviews conducted with the key management of customer relationship management at Sainsbury supermarket in Manchester United Kingdom. The researcher has been designed the questions by keeping in mind the aims and objectives of the research.

Q:        What is the role and responsibilities of the CRM department at Sainsbury supermarket?

Answer:

The respondents have been responded and researcher has been recorded their answers as follows.

Identify the customer’s expectations by making strategies and policies and by implementing those policies and strategies the CRM department is responsible for reducing the difference or gap between the customer’s expectation and their perceived quality of product and services.

Understand and find out the customer’s needs and their requirements

Deliver them the value added services and products as per their needs and requirements

Solve the customer’s problems and offer them the best option of solution

Creating satisfaction, loyalty and happiness among the customers by all means

Handling customer’s complaints and providing them the compensations and the provide then best solution

CRM department always make communication with the customers and assist the sales team and marketing team, advertisement team and all other departments and make it sure that all the departments are working with alignment and all operations are working properly in identifying customer’s expectations.

The CRM department create, manage, update customer’s data and make analysis on the data and make conclusion and involve this data in the decision making.

Generating and updating reports for customers.

Creating long term relationships by providing well and effective services to the customers as per their requirements

Q:        What is the flow of work in CRM department at Sainsbury in reducing difference between the customer’s expectations and offered quality of services and products?

Answer:

The researcher has designed this question and the researcher design the flow of work and the flow of procedure of CRM department at Sainsbury in the given below diagram.

The researcher came to know that customer relationship management perform some multiple duties and perform different tasks to create long term and profitable relations with the customers.

The CRM department has the knowledge that there are two types of customers

Quality conscious

Price Conscious

The quality conscious customers always pay the price for buying the quality product and services, whereas the price conscious always buy the product with lowest cost. And in the Sainsbury Superstore the main focus of the CRM department is to design the product and follow the 4P’s of the marketing as per the gathered information and analyzed data from the customer during the record keeping, during gathering information from them while during surveys and while giving feedback and while updating their record and while handling their complaints. The CRM department pass such analyzed data to the manufacturing department and the manufacturing department then process that information and shape this information into new product or service and offer to the customers in the market to buy and overcome their problems. The flow of the process and work is given below in detail in the following diagram.

Source:            Author

When the customer buy the products as per their expectations then they become satisfied and then they again come to the supermarket to buy those products and they also told other people about their successful experience with their friends, family members and colleagues, and in result the sales volume increases. It means that the CRM department is identifying the customer’s expectations and then offering them expected products to increase the sales volume by reducing the gap between the customer’s expectations and perceived quality of products and services in Sainsbury Manchester United Kingdom.

Q:        Do you believe that there exist a difference between the customer’s expectations and the quality and values of the products and services those they buy from the supermarkets?

Answer:

The respondents have been responded that yes there exist a difference between the customer’s expectations and their requirements and the values and quality of services and products those they buy and come to know after using those items and products.

There are following steps taken by the CRM department at the Sainsbury in identifying that difference.

Each customer allocate a unique code

Generate unique file (database) for the unique customer

Their age, interests, income level, race, ethnicity, hobbies and expectations have been recorded periodically

CRM department involve the customers in online and offline surveys to ask them about their interests and about their experience after consuming the products and get their feedback.

CRM department then conduct surveys open in the target market and conduct research to find out the customer’s requirements which includes the following factors and variable

Price

Quality

Prompt response

Online queries response

Complaint handling and refunding money, replacement of products and services and paying compensations

Taking opinion

Offering them full range of products under single floor

Provide them facility of delivery at their home door

Price discounts

Offers like buy one get one free

Commitments (honoring the promise)

Q:        How the customer relationship management policies and strategies are playing their role in minimizing that difference (gap) for creating loyalty among customers?

Answer:

The customer relationship management is trying its best to reduce this difference between the customers by offering them the products as per their requirements. The CRM department is doing the following steps to reduce the difference

Collecting customer’s data

Collecting their interests

Collecting their priorities

Collecting their priorities

Gathering their feedback

Gathering their interests

Gathering their hobbies and other factors like their age, income level, position, religion, food habits, dependents, job nature and living style

Frequency of shopping

Life style

Savings

And after collecting and updating their requirements like

Fast response

Honoring promises and offering them price discounts

Unique features of products

Value added services

Discounts and offers

Guarantee and warrantees offering

By handling their complaints and offering them the suitable products, compensations and replacements for identification of customers needs and wants

Then making analysis on the gathered data and then CRM department pass that information to the manufacturing department and then after redesign the products and including unique features, CRM department offer those products and services to the customers for creating loyalty and satisfaction among the customers.

Chapter    5:      Conclusions and Recommendations

5.1    Conclusion and Limitations

The researcher has been selected the case study tool (Sainsbury Supermarket) to save the time because the researcher have been already discussed in detail that the researcher has shortage of time and financial limitations, being the student in MA in marketing and Innovation at Anglia Ruskin University the researcher will submit the report to pass the examination and for saving time the researcher has select the case study to save time. The financial resources were also limited and the researcher has been done all the resources from his own means and some resources were allocated by the selected organizations. The researcher had no experience of conducting research in the past that’s why the researcher has used the interview and questionnaires techniques to save the time and to conduct the research in effective way. The people come to the supermarket for buying purpose or they come along with their family members (Anderson, 2008). It has been cleared that majority of the people 91% came to buy products for shopping and some of them about 7% came to buy the products or for hiring the services from the Sainsbury superstore, and the total percentage of the people become as 98%, there are main reasons that the people are satisfied with the products and services and they might be loyal with the supermarket or it means that the prices are low or it means that the quality is good and they found all those necessary items from the super market. The researcher make a conclusion that the majority of the people like 76% people are regular customers at Sainsbury and the other 26% are not regular. It means that the 74% are the satisfied and loyal with the supermarket whereas the 26% are not loyal. CRM department in an organization is responsible for creating satisfaction and loyalty among the customers at maximum level if the department has been allocated proper and necessary and required resources and then the department has been implemented those strategies successfully and the CRM department must identify the requirement of the customers (Bowen & Shoemaker, 2005). It has been cleared that 28% of the people are not happy with the products and services and they are not satisfied with the results of the products. According to the scholars that there are main two factors those can attract the customers to buy the products and the services (Bhote, 2007). As the results have been showed that majority of the people are satisfied with the products and services whereas the 37% more than the one third are not satisfied with the quality of services and products and their results, it means that 37% of the people are not happy and they are not loyal and they will switch to other organizations. According to the Anderson, (2008) that no customer no business, and Bennett, (2008) has been stated that the angry customer switch themselves and the organizations have to bear the switching cost and in this way the organizations must try their best to retain the angry customers by the effective strategies of CRM department for creating loyalty among customers. As the Jones & Sasser, (2006) have been stated that the majority of the people buy because of quality of products, lower prices, convenient, range of products, unique features and value added services, and these factors always play their role in the customer’s buying decision making, and customer relationship management can identify these factors and the priorities of the customers and redesign the products as per customer’s needs and wants and then offer them for achieving organizational objectives. 33% of the customers just buy because of conveniences and the CRM department can identify their expectations by developing and implementing effective strategies and policies for achieving organizational objectives. Majority of the people have been stated that the expected and required products can create satisfaction and happiness among them. Expectations always leads to the happiness and angry, and happiness always leads towards satisfaction and loyalty and loyalty of the customers always leads towards success of business organizations (Oliver, 2002). People are ready to buy from the supermarket if the products are available as per their requirements and expectations, and in this way the happiness and satisfaction will be created. The researcher concluded that the customers demand always derived from the specific factors which includes low price, high quality, availability of products, range of products, ingredients and risk free and unique features of the products. The researcher came to know that about 94% believe in the CRM department functions and its responsibilities and its efforts and they are sure that this department can solve their problems effectively. Effective media channel can play its role in creating awareness among the customers about the effectiveness and responsibilities of the CRM department so that customers can take advantage of this department by providing them the necessary feedback and their opinions about the products and services. All the respondents are not getting products and services as per their expectations and it are necessary for the organization to understand their expectations, because in this way the customers may switch to other organizations in the future. Customers switch from one organization to other organizations to overcome their problems and their loyalties also switched and the organizations have to bear this cost as well (Jones & Sasser, 2006). A significant ratio 24% of the customers is not happy with the CRM worker’s attitude and behavior and they are not happy with their complaints handling activities. And these people do not believe in that CRM department could not perform effectively in identifying their problems and offering them best solutions. This response of customers indicates their past experience, because happiness or unhappy attitude always comes from the past experience (Kim, 2006). About 31% of the respondents have been responded that they are not agreed with the CRM departmental efforts in identifying their expectations and their wants. Majority of the people believe in the role of customer relationship management positively for achieving organizational objectives and for increasing market share and for identification of customer’s requirements. Majority of the people have been responded that there is no need to update CRM employee’s skills and equipments and 39% which is significantly a large amount of people those have been responded that the CRM department need to improve its worker’s skills and their competencies for finding out their problems and offering them the best solution. The CRM department must update and revise the training sessions to improve the worker’s competencies and their skills to play role very positively and effectively for achieving organizational objectives. The researcher came to know that the CRM department is playing its effective role in identifying the customer’s requirements effectively and playing its role in identifying customer’s requirement to reduce the gap between the expectations and quality of items those they buy from the products.

5.2    Recommendations

  1. The majority of the people are not satisfied with the supermarket and they are not loyal with the supermarket. So the customer relationship management must keep in consider all those factors to create the satisfaction and loyalty among the customers and to create satisfaction among them and to build strong relationship between the customers and the supermarket for earning more profit and for earning more revenue. The customer relationship management must focus their strategies and policies for creating loyalty among the customers and review their procedures and policies and must alignment the other departmental procedures for creating loyalty and happiness among their customers and supermarkets (Chen & Popovich, 2004).
  2. The customer relationship management must review the policies and find out the factors those can play their role for creating satisfaction and loyalty among the customers, 28% of the people come to buy due to some other reasons but they are not regular customers and they are not loyal and satisfied with the customers. After reviewing the policies and procedures to advertise the product’s features and to offer those features to the customers and must keep in mind that those promises and features are being honored by the CRM department on time, in this way the organizations can maximize the market share effectively, but it can be possible when the CRM department effectively create the loyalty among the customers after understanding their expectations. It is the only customer relationship management department that can identify and understand the customer’s requirements and reduce the difference between the customer’s expectations to achieve organizational main financial objectives (Caruana et al., 2002).
  3. CRM department must start to review the policies and must pay its attention on the identification of the customers and then as per gathered data the CRM department must produce the products and services as per their needs and wants. Some scholars have been stated that for maximizing the market share and to achieve the organizational objectives (Buttle, 2005).
  4. CRM department must review the skills and competencies of the staff members against the standards and measure their performance and plan for their personal development to update and improve their weaknesses and to improve their skills and competencies for handling client’s complaints because the customers believe in the CRM department’s efforts in identification of their priorities and their expectations.
  5. Customer relationship management can pay its vital role in recognizing their priorities and their expectations and all those factors those can play their role for offering them suitable products with specific features so that organizations can achieve their objectives and goals (Kandampully and Suhartanto, 2002). The customer relationship management must focus on the priorities of the customers and must make such system and policies and implement them for understanding the customer’s needs and wants like lower prices, high quality, full range of products, and 33% of the people those buy because of the conveniences are the big opportunities for the organization to create loyalty among them and this can be done only if the CRM department can successfully identify their expectations. According to the Kim, (2006) that people buy because of high quality and low price but the products must be available in the markets and they must know the features of the products, price discounts, unique features and availability of the products are the sales boosters.
  6.  The selected organization can create happiness and satisfaction among the customer if they offer the people products and services as per customer’s requirements and expectations. So the CRM department must consider these main factors and must design the strategies and policies to identify their expectations and then after designing the products as per their needs and requirements they can create satisfaction. Satisfaction and happiness always leads the customer towards loyalty and loyalty will leads the organization for building long term and profitable relationship with customers (Macintosh & Lockshin, 2009).
  7. Customer relationship management must pay its focus on identifying the customer’s expectations and must reduce the difference between their expectations and offered products and services values and quality so that happiness and satisfaction can be created among them.
  8. The CRM department must consider the lower price, high quality, full range of products, availability of products and risk free and unique features in the products and services and money back guarantee must be included in the products while designing the strategies and policies for attracting new customers from the target market and for retaining old customers while creating satisfaction and loyalty among them. The CRM department must install the latest technology and latest procedures for reducing the cost and for maximizing the quality (Schlesinger and Heskett, 2003).
  9. The CRM department must pay its attention in creating its effectiveness among the customer’s because it is very important for the organization when the CRM department can create the awareness among the customers then they will come to the CRM department for registering their complaints and they can be benefited and the organization will also benefited from this opportunity. So CRM department must consider its advertisement policies and must select the effective media channels to create awareness of CRM among customers.
  10. Customer relationship management must review its procedures and skills and competencies of the workers and must update their skills and competencies. CRM department must review and redesign the development programs to improve and update their skills and competencies to handle customers (Looy et al., 2004).
  11.  The organization must pay its attention and specially the customer relationship management must review the development plans and programs and must update them with the latest technology and tools to make their workers equip with latest technology of IT and psychology to achieve organizational objectives.
  12. The management of the Sainsbury supermarket must provide the resource to the customer relationship management department to accomplish its tasks and in achieving the organizational objectives and to adopt the new latest and updates technology, processes and procedures to offer the customers products at lower costs but with high quality of products as compared to the competitors to achieve competitive advantages as well, to create satisfaction and happiness among the customers by reducing the gap between the customer’s expectations and the products quality and by offering them products and services as per their requirements.

5.3    Future Research

The researcher came to know that there are some other areas which are necessary to be taken into considerations by the researchers to conduct research on them because for the creating loyalty and satisfaction among the customers and to reduce the difference between the customer’s expectations and offered products and services values and quality to increase the loyalty among them for achieving organizational objectives. The researchers must consider the factor like lower carbon emission products at low price because the people will buy those products and the opportunity is available in the market, because the people are now social responsible and they want to play their role for saving their environment and in this way the organizations can play role for increasing market share.

Chapter 6:         References and Bibliography

a.      Books and Journals

Anderson, E.W. (2007) Cross Strategy variation in customer satisfaction and retention, Marketing Letters, 13(34), pp: 212-346

Anderson, W. & Mittal, V. (2008) Strengthening the satisfaction-profit chain, Journal of Service Research, 21(14), pp: 197-334

Bennett, R. (2008) ‘Relationship formation and governance in consumer markets: transactional analysis versus the behaviourist approach’ Journal of Marketing Management, 35(13), pp: 217-356

Bhote, K.R. (2007) Beyond Customer Satisfaction to Customer Loyalty: The Key to Greater Profitability. 2nd ed. New York: AMA Management Briefing

Bowen, J. & Shoemaker, S. (2005) ‘Loyalty: a strategic commitment’ Cornell H.R.A. Quarterly, 31(16), pp: 323-445

Buttle, F. (2005) Customer Relationship Management: concepts and tools 3rd ed. Oxford:

Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann

Caruana, A., Money, A.H. and Berthon, P.R. (2002) ‘Service quality and satisfaction-the moderation role of value’ European Journal of Marketing, 35(11), pp: 735-9360

Chen, I.J. & Popovich, K. (2004) ‘Understanding customer relationship management (CRM):

People, process and technology’ Business Process Management Journal, 15(11), pp. 522-977

Chi, Q. & Qu, H. (2009) ‘Examining the structural relationship of destination image, tourist satisfaction and destination loyalty: An integrated approach’ Tourism Management, 27(9), pp: 345-654

Feagin, J., Orum, A., & Sjoberg, G. (2004) A case for case study Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press

Flyvbjerg, B. (2007) ‘Five Misunderstandings about Case Study Research’ Qualitative Inquiry, 21(11), pp: 413-762

Gefen, D. (2003) Customer loyalty in e-commerce, Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 22(11), pp: 323-467

Getty, J.M. & Thompson, K.N. (2005) ‘The relationship between quality, satisfaction, and recommending behaviour in lodging decision’ Journal of Hospitality & Leisure Marketing, 15(22), pp: 313-527

Gronroos, C. (2003) Service Management and Marketing, 4th ed. Manchester: John Wiley &

Sons Ltd.

Gundersen, M.G., Heide, M. & Olsson, U. (2003) ‘Hotel Guest satisfaction among Business Travellers: What are the Important Factors?’ The Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 25(9), pp: 345-557

Helgesen, O. (2003) ‘Are Loyal Customers profitable? Customer satisfaction customer action loyalty and customer profitability at the individual level’ Journal of Marketing Management, 26(10), pp: 675-823

Jones, T.O. and Sasser, E. (2006) ‘Why satisfied customer’s defects’ Harvard Business Review, 17(11), pp: 234-375

Kandampully, J. and Suhartanto, D. (2002) ‘Customer loyalty in the hotel industry: the role of customer satisfaction and image’ International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 26(13), pp: 464-652

Kim, H. (2006) ‘Developing an index of online customer satisfaction’ Journal of Financial Services Marketing, 26(11), pp: 345-587

Looy, V., Gemmel, P. & Dierdonck, V. (2004) Services Management: An Integrated

Approach, 3rd ed. London: Pearson Education Publishers

Macintosh, G. & Lockshin, L. (2009) ‘Retail relationships and loyalty: A multi-level perspective’ International Journal of Research in Marketing, 35(12), pp: 312-413

Oliver, R.L. (2002) Satisfaction: A Behavioral Perspective On The Consumer. 1st ed. Singapore: McGraw Hill

Oliver, S.L. (2002) ‘A Cognitive Model of the Antecedents and Consequences of satisfaction Decisions’ Journal of marketing Research, 17(9), pp: 524-778

Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V.A. and Berry, L.L. (2001) ‘A conceptual model of service quality and its implications for future research’, Journal of Marketing, 37(19), pp: 434-653

Powell R.A. & Single, H.M. (2007) ‘Focus groups’ International Journal of Quality in Health Care, 29(9), pp: 423-558

Reicheld, F.F. & Sasser, W. (2005) ‘Zero defections come to services’ Harvard Business Review, 22(9), pp: 315-489

Reinartz, W. J. & Kumar, V. (2004) ‘The impact of customer relationship characteristics on profitable lifetime duration’ Journal of Marketing, 25(11), pp: 456-578

Schneider, B. and Bowen, D.E. (2008) Understanding customer delight and outrage, Sloan Management Review, 22(9), pp: 409-523

Schlesinger, L. and Heskett, J. (2003) ‘The Service-Driven Service Company’ Harvard Business Review, 55(9), pp: 523-740

Soderlund, M. (2010) ‘Customer satisfaction and its consequences on customer behavior revisited: The impact of different levels of satisfaction on word-of-mouth, feedback to the supplier and loyalty’ International Journal of Service Industry Management, 18(9), pp: 327-678

Sugandhi, R.K. (2008) Customer Relationship Management. 5th ed. New Delhi: New age

International Publishers

Zeithaml, V.A., Pasuraman, A. & Berry, L.L. (2007) Delivering Quality Service: Balancing Customer Perceptions and Expectations. 2nd ed. New York: The Free Press

b.      Websites

http://www.sainsburys.co.uk/sol/index.jsp [Accessed on 13th June 2013]

http://help.sainsburys.co.uk/ [Accessed on 16th June 2013]

http://www.sainsburys.co.uk/sol/index.jsp?GLOBAL_DATA._searchType=0 [Accessed on 11th June 2013]

https://www.sainsburys.co.uk/sol/my_account/global_login.jsp?bmUID=1373248216026 [Accessed 24th June 2013]

c.      Bibliography

Chi, C. and Qu, H. (2009) ‘Examining the structural relationship of destination image, tourist satisfaction and destination loyalty: An integrated approach’ Tourism Management, 30(15), pp: 535-756

Choi, T. and Chu, R. (2001) ‘Determinants of hotel guest’s satisfaction and repeat patronage in the Hong Kong hotel industry’ International Journal of Hospitality Management, 20(12), pp: 277-297

Faullent, R., Matzler, K. and Fuller, J. (2008) ‘The impact of satisfaction and image on loyalty: the case of Alpine ski resorts’ Managing Service Quality, 28(22), pp: 163-178

Gilbert, D. and Horsnell, S. (1998) ‘Customer satisfaction measurement practice in United Kingdom hotels’ Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 22(14), pp: 450-464

Su, A.Y.L. (2004) ‘Customer satisfaction measurement practice in Taiwan hotels’ International Journal of Hospitality Management, 22(9), pp: 397-408

Chapter 7:         Appendices

Questions

Q:        What is your main purpose to visit Sainsbury?

Q:        Are you regular customer at Sainsbury as shopper?

Q:        Are you satisfied with the products and services offered by the Sainsbury?

Q:        Why do you buy from Sainsbury, select the best option?

High Quality

Lower Prices

Full range of Products

Unique Features of Products

Value added services

Money back Guarantee

Q:        Do you think that the CRM department is playing its role in identifying your requirements and needs and wants at Sainsbury supermarket?

Q:        Why you buy the products from the superstores, select the appropriate option?

To overcome their needs and wants

For enjoyment

For satisfaction

For loyalty

For spending money

Q:        Do you believe that products and services as per your expectations and requirement can create happiness and satisfaction among you?

Q:        Are you sure that if Sainsbury supermarket offer you products as per your expectations then you will buy the products from them?

Q:        Which factors are important in identification of your expectations, select the appropriate so that the CRM department must consider them for developing the strategies to identify your expectations?

Low Price

High Quality

Unique Features

Volume and size

Ingredients

Risk Free

Low carbon emission

Money back guarantee

Range of products

Availability of products

Q:        Are you sure that CRM department can create satisfaction and happiness among you while identifying your expectations and offering you products and services as per your requirements?

Q:        Are you sure that the customer relationship management is helpful for you in handling your complaints and delivering you the best opinion and solution for your problems?

Q:        Do you agree that there is a difference (gap) between your expectations and products and services’ quality those you received from the Sainsbury supermarket?

Q:        Are you sure that CRM staff member’s attitude and behaviour is good and they behave with you politely and they tried their best to understand your problems?

Q:        Please select the select the best options with priority that which factor or factors can be helpful in creating loyalty among the customers?

Q:        Are you sure that CRM staff member’s attitude and behaviour is good and they behave with you politely and they tried their best to understand your problems?

Q:        Are you sure that CRM department is trying its best to reduce the difference between your expectations and the quality of products and services those you perceived?

Q:        Do you agree that CRM department can identify your expectations and can sort out your problems?  

Q:        What was employee’s response when you registered complaint against a product or service and are you satisfied with the response and quality of response?

Q:        Do you agree that CRM department has skilled and well authorized workers those provide you quick response?

Q:        Do you agree that CRM department take your feedback properly and update your priorities and keep in touch with you in understanding your requirements?

Q:        Do you agree that the CRM department must improve the skills and knowledge and well equip the CRM workers and must improve the communicational skills to handle your complaints?

Q:        Are you sure that there exist a relationship between the satisfaction and happiness, loyalty and sales of organization?

Interviews

Q:        What is the role and responsibilities of the CRM department at Sainsbury supermarket?

 Q:       What is the flow of work in CRM department at Sainsbury in reducing difference between the customer’s expectations and offered quality of services and products?

Q:        Do you believe that there exist a difference between the customer’s expectations and the quality and values of the products and services those they buy from the supermarkets and how the customer relationship management policies and strategies are playing their role in minimizing that difference (gap) for creating loyalty among customers?

Q:        How the customer relationship management policies and strategies are playing their role in minimizing that difference (gap) for creating loyalty among customers?

Published by MALI

Writer is post-graduated in Computer science, Business Administration, Marketing and Innovation. He has 10 years of business academic research writing experience.

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