Loss and profits are the final results of business operations after financial transaction has been occurred (Bejou et al., 2005). Most of the organizations could not achieve their targets (long term and short term) and these organizations suffered from the heavy financial looses and at the end either they switch the industry or they leave the business (Anderson and Mittal, 2008). There are so many problems associated with the business organizations that’s why they could not achieve their targets well in time and all those problems are associated with their negligence and due to lack of skilled workers and lack of intentions towards identifying customer’s requirements and some time due to competitors strategies the organizational strategies become fail and organizations suffered from heavy financial looses (Anderson, 2009). There is a gap exist between the customer’s expectations and the products they perceived from the manufactures and this gap have great impact on the organizational success and can also impact on the client’s satisfaction and loyalty and in this way it has the impact on the sales and growth of organization (Buttle, 2007). The organizations can minimize this gap if they have proper and suitable business strategies to identify the client’s requirements and then they pass the information to the relevant department to design and manufacture or produce such type of products and services and include all the required characteristics in the products as per client’s requirements then in such a way the organizations can achieve their long and short term targets easily otherwise in the era of high competition the competitors can lead and there will be no success (Chen & Popovich, 2007). With the development and advancement in the technology and change in the culture the client’s requirements always changed (Bejou et al., 2005). Bennett, (2003) has been stated that change in the technology and procedure always have an impact on the people’s requirements and drawbacks and benefits of technology always pay positive and negative impacts on the demand and expectations of people in a society and even then in all over the world the change in technology have an impact on the culture and human beings. So it is important for the organizations to understand the living standards and change in the expectations and behaviours of people for their business success. It is necessary for the organizations to first understand the real requirements of their potential customers and then offer them the real solution as per their problem and in this way the satisfaction can be created and the loyalty and resale is also associated with the identification of clients problems and only the CRM department can be helpful in finding out the solution, and the clients retention ratio is also associated with the CRM department’s strategies by considering client’s expectations (Bhote, 2003). Change in the environment and change in the culture and routine always change in the demand (Kitzinger, 2006). Looy et al., (2007) have been stated that among the clients happiness always leads towards satisfaction and satisfaction leads towards loyalty and customer relationship management can create the satisfaction among the clients and this satisfaction can leads the companies towards success, and the success can be only complete when the organization meets the annual sales targets.
1. To understand the gap between customer’s expectations and offered services
2. Identify customer’s expectations
The role of CRM department in Identifying Customer’s expectations to achieve organizational objectives (A Case Study of Sainsbury Superstore in Manchester United Kingdom)
What is the role and importance of CRM department in identification of customer’s expectations to achieve organizational objectives?
The researcher will conduct this research to find out the main role and importance of customer relationship management departmental activities in achieving organizational objectives and for this purpose the researcher will achieve this stated aims by dividing the aim into different objectives which are given as under
To achieve the above stated aim and as per the above stated title and research question, the researcher has been divided the objectives to achieve the main aims of the research into small objectives which are given below here
First of all the researcher will find out the main responsibilities which includes the benefits/advantages of customers relationship management departmental and its duties towards organizational objectives.
Then the researcher will disclose the impact and importance of the customer’s expectations and its importance and its role for the success of organization
The researcher will also find out the relationship between the CM departmental connection and relationships between the organizational success and customer’s requirements
All other factors those can play their role in the success of customer’s loyalty and in retaining them by considering them through customer relationship management department and including them in the strategies and implementing at the workplace
The gap will be defined in detail and its negative impacts will be finding out by the researcher and the role of CRM department in reducing this gap will be disclosed by the researcher
The main issues/problems and challenges those are main hindrance in designing and implementing its strategies for the success of organization will be disclosed and their solution will be finding out by the researcher
Finally Conclusions and recommendations will be designed and developed by the researcher as per the outcomes for improving the strategies and policies and practices in reality in the organizations for positive outcomes.
To achieve the above stated aims and objectives the researcher has designed the basic questions which are given as under
What is the importance of CRM department and its role in achieving organizational objectives?
What is the role of customer’s expectations in organizational success?
Is there any gap exist between client’s requirements and offered products in the selected organization?
What is the link between the customer’s requirements and how the CRM department can play its role in identifying customer’s requirements and reducing gap?
What are the draw backs of this gap and which factors must be taken into consideration by CRM department in reducing and achieving organizations objectives effectively?
What kinds of improvements are required by the CRM department to improve its policies and strategies in order to reduce and in achieving selected organization’s goals?
Quality of products and services
Educations, training and skills of the staff members
Identification of customer’s expectations
Organizational objectives (to sustain the growth and business expansion)
All the business organizations have their aims and objectives and to achieve those objectives the organizations manage the business activities which include the organization, resource allocation, controlling and marketing (Powell and Single, 2003). Anderson and Mittal, (2008) have been stated that customers have needs and requirements and to overcome their specific needs and wants people are always ready to pay and spend amount and in return they need the solution of their needs and wants and solution of their problems. Bhote, (2003) has been stated that there are some factors that can be helpful for an organization to find out the customer’s expectations before designing and making products and before distributing the products, so the organizations must pay their attentions towards those factors rather than to pay its attention at marketing or customer relationship management role in identifying customer’s expectation, Buttle, (2007) has been stated that those factors includes actual problem, quality, price, size, volume, availability, ingredients, promises, feedback, opinion and suggestions these factors are most helpful for the organizations to identify customer’s needs and wants. To achieve organizational objectives it is necessary to create first the loyalty and satisfaction among the customers and the organizations if pay its attention at the research and development department then the customer’s needs and wants can be identified by implementing suitable strategies (Morgan, 2004). Customer relationship management always play its important role in identifying organizational opportunities and customer’s expectations and playing its role for achieving organizational objectives (Anderson, 2009). According to Bejou et al., (2005) have been stated that customers have their own needs and want and they are always ready to help out the customer in creating satisfaction, happiness and loyalty and ultimately in achieving organizational objectives. There is a direct relationship between the sales and the expected products and services and in this way the organizations can achieve their targets (Bennett, 2003). It is only marketing department responsibility to make it sure and plan all the marketing strategies in such a way that the successful transaction occur in result the sales function occur so that organization can achieve its main objectives (Bejou et al., 2005). It is not important for the organizations to establish the CRM department in the organizations because in this way the organizations needs to spend more money and the results are not as per expected (Bhote, 2003). Similarly the Buttle, (2007) has been stated that the loyalty and the satisfaction can be created by the organizations through high level quality and the low price and the employees can play their role in creating loyalty among the customers and this only can be possible if the organizations consider their welfare into their strategies and pay full attention for high salaries and equipping them high quality of trainings and skills can be developed among them instead of spending high amount on the customer relationship managements and offer high quality of products and services at cheap prices as compared to the competitors effectively and efficiently (Chen & Popovich, 2007). The organizations must put attentions on the welfare of client’s and on the welfare of staff members and offer them handsome salaries for creating productive attitude and creating loyalty among the clients by offering the low price products to the customers by identifying their required items and services (Kitzinger, 2006). Bejou et al., (2005) have been stated that it is customer relationship management responsibility to make strategies for the customers to offer them products at low prices as compared to the other suppliers and the products must be of high quality by identifying their expectations because the expectations can play their role in the sales and in achieving organizational objectives, because Anderson, (2009) has been stated that if the products are available in the market bust those products do not have the features as per customer’s needs and wants than no one will buy, and if someone will buy those products then after using the customer will become angry and there will be no sale. Chen & Popovich, (2007) have stated that the only customer relationship management department can determined the customer’s needs and their wants and can offer them the suitable solution for their problem, and in this way the organizations can be able to manufacture those products those can be as per the customers demand and their needs and the organizations can achieve their objectives. According to the Looy et al., (2007) that to achieve organizational objectives it is necessary for the organizations to first of all provide the products as per demand and the loyalty can be created by the organizations for successful business operations and customer relationship management can play its role in achieving organizational objectives successfully, and according to the McDonald, (2008) that once the relationship between the organization and the customer must be based on the loyalty and long term relationship is helpful for the organizations to meet their sales targets and sales volume for the growth of organizations. So in this way the identification of customer’s needs and requirements can play their role in achieving organizational objectives.
According to the Sugandhi, (2007) that the organizations can achieve the goals only when the customers buy the products and after consuming those products and services they become happy means the products and services must provide them the expected results for which they paid the amount (price) and in this way they will come again and they will refer other people to buy the products and services and they will recommend others and when the sales volume will become high then the organizations can make profit for sustaining growth and to become market leader in the United Kingdom.
|Loyalty, revisits, more sales, more profit|
|S. #||Resources||Cost (£)|
|Aims and Objectives||X||X|
|Time Schedule in Weeks||1||2||3||4||5||6||7||8||9||10|
|Data Recording and Analysis||X||X|
|Making Conclusion and recommendation||X||X||X|
The researcher has 2 weeks time as contingency period to make amendments and removing errors as per requirements
Question: Why did you come in this hotel?
|To meet someone||1||1||2|
|To attend a seminar||2||1||3|
|Visit the country||22||18||40|
|For official visit||14||19||33|
|To attend marriage ceremony||1||1||2|
In the given both charts the researcher came to know that the majority of the respondents belongs to the tourists and the second big number is belongs to the official tourists that belongs to the business meetings and for the government delegations where as the other purposes can be neglected and the main focus of the Holiday Inn must be on the foreigner tourists and on the official visitors because their proportion showed that these two kind of group mainly stayed in the hotels. The majority of the people is 49% those belongs to the foreign tourists and they stayed at the hotel and the second major proportion is the foreigner official delegation those stayed at the hotel.
Questions: Did you ever been here (in this hotel) before and for how long you are coming and how many times you been here?
|Respondent’s Frequency per Year||Male||Female||Total|
|1 to 5 times a year||15||17||32|
|5 to 10 times||11||10||21|
|15 to 20 times||6||7||13|
|More than 20 times||5||4||9|
So from the responses the researcher came to know that majority composed of 41% of the tourists came in London and they belongs to minimum 1 and maximum 5 times in a year, whereas the next major proportion is the 26% that people visit the London minimum 5 times and maximum for 10 times in a year, and then 16% of the tourists belong to the group those came in London for minimum 15 and maximum 20 times in a year and 11% of the people visits the London more than 20 times in a year and 6% came in London for the first time, so from the responses the researcher came to know that the opportunity is available in the market to capture more new clients from the target market and in this way the CRM department can make more benefits for the organizations.
Question: Are you satisfied by the quality of services offered by this hotel CRM department?
So from the respondents it is very clear that the 80% of the respondents are satisfied with the quality of services and products offered by the Holidays Inn customer relationship management.
Question: Do you believe in the gap between the customer expectations and the offered quality of services and products?
From this question the respondent came to know that 95% of the respondents have believe in the gap between their expectations and the only 5% of the respondents do not have an idea about the gap existence. A significant majority have the awareness about the gap between the customer’s expectations and the offered quality of services and products to the customers.
Question: Do you believe that the customer relationship management department can play its effective role for enhancing sales and growth of an organization in the hotel industry and will reduce the gap between the customer’s expectations and the offered quality of services and products?
CRM effectiveness in the hotel industry, the respondents showed that 77% of the respondents responded that they believe in the effectiveness of customer problem solutions and they believe that the CRM department can solve their all problems and there are only 23% of the respondents responded that they do not have knowledge about the effectiveness of CRM department.
Question: Did you ever find the CRM staff helpful for their problem handling and in identifying their expectations to reduce the gap?
About 85% of the respondents replied that they believe in the importance of the customer relationship management and its practices towards problem solving and helpful for themselves and they have also believe in that the CRM can also reduce this gap between their expectations and perceived quality of services and products, whereas only the rest 15% did not believe in the CRM strategies or their effectiveness. There are some reasons behind this answer first of all the clients 15% which is not negligible amount may do not have some idea or they do not have the knowledge about the effectiveness about the CRM.
Question: Do you believe that is there a link between the customer’s expectations and their loyalty and satisfaction?
As the 95% of the respondents have been responded that the customer’s expectations and their loyalty and satisfaction have a link, the 95% said that yes the link exist between their expectations and the loyalty.
Question: Do you believe that loyalty and satisfaction can lead towards the re sale and can create the happiness for customers?
100% of the respondents replied that there is no doubt and they all have believe in that loyalty and satisfaction are the factors those will lead them for re sale and become the reason of happiness among the customers and they all have believe in the satisfaction and the loyalty creating by identifying their expectations and by reducing the gap between the customer’s expectations and the offered or delivered quality of services and the products.
Question: Which factors can play their important role in identifying their expectations and in creating more quality and happiness as compared to the other hotels?
|Serial #||Important Factors||Response||Total|
32% of the people believe that fast and quick response can create the quality of services and products whereas 27% of the respondents have responded that staff behaviour that includes the style, way of talking, communication and dealing is the major factors that can create quality and satisfaction among the customers, then 23% of the respondents have responded that offers which includes the low price at high level or pay for 2 nights and get i night free or book for 7 days and dinner and breakfast free same like the hotel must offer to create the quality and happiness among the customers and 15% of the respondents have replied that promises also play their important role in creating quality of services and products and happiness among the customers and there is no doubt that the keeping words and honour the promises always bring happiness and loyalty among the customers, only 3 % respondents have responded that brand image can create happiness and loyalty among the customers.
Question: Which one or set of priorities would you like to prefer while booking a room in Holiday Inn and common factors those can helpful in identifying their expectations as well?
Promises, Quality of services and products, Quick response of your call, Behaviour
|Respondent’s Priorities list||Yes||No||Total Respondents|
|Quick response of call||70||10||80|
|Quality of services and Products||76||4||80|
Question: Did you ever register the complaints about the gap between offered quality of services and products and their expected quality of services and products?
Most of the respondents have been responded in yes that they have registered their complaints against the gap and this ratio is 75% the higher ratio and only the 25% of the respondents have been responded that they never registered their any complaints against the gap regarding the quality of services and products.
Question: Did you ever receive the response from CRM department against registered complaints and did they provide you the solutions at the spot or not?
Majority like 95% of the respondents have been responded that the CRM department has responded them and the CRM department has responded them and provide them the best option and solution of their problems, only 5% people responded that they did not received the solution of their problems and they remained angry and waited for the solution.
Question: Did you ever share your feelings, loyalty and your experience about the hotel quality of services with your friends, family friends and your colleagues?
Majority of the people like 92% of the respondents have been responded that they share their experience of the travel and about their satisfaction and loyalty, quality of services and products with their colleagues and with their family members and with their family friends. Only 8% of the respondents did not share their experience with their family, friends and colleagues.
Question: Do you believe that the price and quality can play their role in creating loyalty and satisfaction among the customer in the hotel industry?
There are two types of customer quality conscious and quality conscious, and always customers gave priority to the high quality of products at low price items and that’s why 100% of the respondents have been responded that the price and quality always play its role in creating loyalty and happiness among the customers.
The researcher has selected the qualitative and quantitative research methods to conduct the research and for the valid and more reliable result the researcher has been selected about 80 respondents and for their response the researcher make it sure that the visitors are as according to the target market, while conducting the whole research the researcher has keep all the aims and objectives in the mind and then go through for the research. The management of the hotel has arranged for the tea and sitting arrangements for the researcher and the respondents. From the interview of customer relationship management department management the researcher has concluded that the customer relationship management is responsible for the customer care and for the identification of customer expectations and for the improvements of the system in order to gather customer’s data. The researcher has been concluded that according to the management the customer relationship management can also find out the actual expectations of the customers and can play its role in delivering the quality of services and products as per the client’s needs and expectations and in this way CRM departmental role can be proved that there is a deep link between the CRM activities and sales and growth of the Holiday Inn hotel in London and this is the main purpose of the research to find out the factors and CRM activities to increase the sales volume and its role in growth of hotel industry in United Kingdom while its role in reducing the gap between the customer’s expectations and the delivered quality of services and products. The researcher has found out that there is a link between the CRM department strategies and the customer’s satisfaction and the loyalty and the loyalty and satisfaction have the direct relationship with the sales and growth of the organization.
Majority of the clients have believe in that their expectations and their loyalty are attached and have a deep link with each other and if the CRM department successfully understand their expectations about the quality of services and products then they will be able to deliver the same quality of services and products and in this case the clients will become happy and the organization will successful in creating satisfaction and loyalty among the clients and the client will come again to buy the products and will hire the services from them again and in this case sales and the growth will increase.
The researcher came to know that the CRM department and its activities at Holiday Inn need more concentrations and some factors as discussed above that need to be included in the process of identification of customer’s expectations. There are too opportunities available in the target market to capture more clients from the market and the Holidays Inn can become the market leader because most of the people have visited the London for different purposes and majority of the people came here for their different purposes minimum 5 times in a year. The 20% is not the negligible amount and the CRM department must review the whole procedure as the researcher has described that the CRM department must consider those factors those can play role in identification the customer’s expectations which includes priority, privacy, luxury, food, taste, pick and drop facility, neat and cleanliness and decoration, fast response and decoration and more important factors like low cost but high quality of services and products must be undertaken these factors and the staff skills and especially their communication skills must be reviewed and necessary actions must be taken by the department to improve their skills and communication process between CRM department and manufacturing department for manufacturing the services and products as per client’s expectations and the performance measurement must be evaluate so that the customer’s complaints must be handle in efficient way to create happiness and satisfaction among the customers for earning more money and become the market leader.
All the customers have believe in the loyalty and satisfaction and they responded that trough their expectation identification the CRM department can create satisfaction and loyalty among them if they provide them the quality of services and products as per their expectations then there will be significant increase in the sales and organization will make growth and the organization will capture new more clients and old will be retained y the CRM department in this way.
Here the researcher concluded that the 77% of the customers are linked with the new technology and they have the how and know about the CRM and its effectiveness where as the remaining 23% of the customers do not have interest in the new technology either the message of the awareness about the CRM effectiveness could not reach to them. The 15% is not negligible amount of the respondents and the 85% of the respondents have believe in the advantages and helping behaviour of the CRM staff and this is the loyalty and the happiness for the customers but the remaining 15% must be taken into consideration by the CRM department and pay its full attention towards achieving the effectiveness of CRM department for these 15% by actions and making policies that why these customers have been ignored. It is clear from the respondents that promises, quick response, staff behaviour and offers and brand image can create the quality of services improve and better for creating more loyalty and satisfaction among the customers.
Majority of the respondents 92% people share their feelings, experience and quality of services and products with their family friends, friends and colleagues and probably they may recommend them the products and services as per their experience and in this way loyalty can play its role for free marketing and this reference group will make string and permanent new clients and will help in achieving satisfaction and loyalty among them.
Here in this section the researcher will describe the research method that will be selected by the researcher to conduct the research, Anderson, (2009) has been stated that the researcher must select one of the research method from qualitative or quantitative research methods or both of them can be used as research method. Here the researcher will select both of the methods to conduct the research for achieving all the aims and objectives of the research. The researcher will select both of the research methods to collect valid and reliable data and to achieve aims and objectives of the research. According to the Bejou et al., (2005) that the qualitative and quantitative both of the research methods are useful for the inexperienced researcher when they have limited time and limited financial resources.
All the customers and the customer relationship management staff members are the population of the research and the researcher will select the sample size among this population and “N” represent the whole number of population and “n” represents the sample size and the researcher will distribute the questionnaires (close ended and open ended questions) among them and semi structured interviews will be conducted by the researcher for achieving the aims and objectives of the research. According to the Bhote, (2003) that the researchers must involve the consumers in research process to gather valid and reliable primary data to make analysis and conclusion, similarly Bennett, (2003) has been stated that the researchers must include the departmental staff and especially the key person in the process of research conducting for achieving effective and valid information and to disclose the real factors and key successive factors. The researcher will select the key person from the customer relationship management because these people are most suitable responded and they have the valid and reliable information about the CRM department and its functionality and they have explain the responsibility and its functions more effectively.
Chen & Popovich, (2007) have been stated that there are some different methods to select the sample size and all the methods have their advantages and disadvantages and it depends on the researchers to select the appropriate method for sample selection. Random sampling technique is appropriate if the whole population is available, and the stratified sampling technique is most suitable when the demographic or specific group must be taken into consideration, systematic method is always adopted by the researcher when a stream of people (like in a street) are available for research conducting like every 5th person and finally cluster sampling is always referred when the respondents are far away like in some different cities and it is hard to conduct the research (Looy et al., 2007), so as the scholars have been stated that for this research the researcher must select the systematic sampling method to select every 9th customer and will distribute the questionnaire among every 9th customer, because the respondents need time to fill the questionnaires and this activity will take time. There must be about 100 respondents when the researchers planned to distribute questionnaires among them and follow qualitative and quantitative research methods (Kitzinger, 2006). The researcher has been decided to choose about 120 customers to distribute questionnaires among them. The researcher will include both the genders without any age, sex, colour and religion and ability discrimination.
Looy et al., (2007) have been stated that the researchers must not include the old literature while gathering secondary data and the researcher must not include own opinion and must use different sources like books, research papers, press releases and printed reports and latest technology must be used like electronic books, electronics journals and reports and websites must be included in secondary data gathering. There are many sources available to gather secondary data and the researcher will use the books with the title of customer relationship management and customer’s expectations identification and importance of customer relationship management, journals, articles, electronic books, electronics journals, different magazines and annual reports on the role and importance of CRM department in the and the selected organization (Sainsbury) website will also be used as a source of secondary data. McDonald, (2008) has been stated that the researchers must include the rational review of literature to prove its title and research question and must avoid including the old research statements because in the old time the technology and culture and trends and needs and wants are not same as today so fresh and latest scholar’s statements must be included in the secondary data.
According to the Chen & Popovich, (2007) have been stated that the researcher can gather primary data by distributing questionnaires among the respondents and the interviews are also the best way to conduct the research when the researchers have limited time and other financial resources limited. Case study is the best way to conduct the research when the researchers have the limitations like time and the other resources (Sugandhi, 2007). The researcher will select the case study “Sainsbury situated in Manchester United Kingdom” and will distribute the questionnaires among the samples by designing the effective questions and both type open ended and close ended will be included and the researcher will include both of them and the questions will be designed by keeping all the aims and objectives in their minds. According to Parasuraman et al., (2003) that, effective questionnaires include open and close ended questions. The researcher can gather valid and reliable primary data by distributing questionnaires among the respondents (Bejou et al., 2005).
It must be the most concern of the researcher to make sure the data validity and reliability at each and every step (Bejou et al., 2005). The researcher will consider all the ethical considerations as have been discussed in first chapter about the ethical considerations and in this way the data validity and reliability can be assured. According to Morgan, (2004) that data validity and reliability means the consistency and steadiness are the parameters of data validity and reliability.
The researcher came to know about the main responsibilities of the customer relationship management department in achieving organizational objectives and its main features and its role in creating happiness and satisfaction among the clients. The researcher has made some recommendations for the Holiday Inn hotel situated in the London 103-109 Southwark street London, England to get more positive results from the customer relationship management department. As according to the aims and objectives of the researcher the researcher has concluded the results after making analysis explained above and now made the suggestions for the Holiday Inn hotel to achieve its objectives while contributing the CRM departmental efforts positively, all the recommendations have been listed below
The hotel management must keep its full concentration on two types of target market number one is the foreigner tourists and second one is the official visitors those come and stayed in the United Kingdom and they pay high amount for short stay and those people expect high quality of services and products in the return of their amount, so the customer relationship management department must design the marketing plan for these two above stated targeted market to capture new clients and to hold and retain the old clients with the hotel for increasing the sales volume.
The customer relationship management must designed the marketing strategies with the coordination of other departments marketing and research and development department and after considering all those factors those can capture new and can retain old customers from the targeted market for achievement of organizational objectives.
The CRM department must review the specific skills and the software review according to the advance technology that has a great impact on the demand and expectations of the customers and the CRM department can also identified the expectations of the remaining 20% of the customers which is a major portion and the CRM department must check its communication process from top to bottom in the process of expectation identification in order to minimize the gap between the customer’s expectations and the quality of services offered to the customers in order achieve the main objectives to become market leader in hotel industry.
The researcher has suggested that the CRM must take it into consideration seriously and must design the promotional campaign and message convey policies must be affective and all other media channels used by the tourists for creating awareness among the tourists and making it sure that strategic alliance with the other business organizations is effectively conveying its message to the target people for awareness about CRM department.
CRM department must make it sure to get the feedback from them and in this way the customers will also feel that the CRM departmental staff is doing work for them and they can be benefited from them and in this way the more satisfaction and loyalty can be generated.
The CRM department must consider strictly the staff behaviour, brand image, always honour the promises made during the marketing campaign with the customers and always offer some kind of offers for the customers to attract them, to improve and increase the level of quality better and to make the customers happy and loyal with the Holiday Inn hotel.
To achieve organizational objectives the CRM department needs to pay its focus on the priorities of customers to create loyalty and satisfaction among the customers and for reducing the gap between the customer’s expectations and offered quality of services to capture more market share from the market and to earn more money from the customers.
Customer complaints handling process must be checked by the CRM department and the employee’s skills must be reviewed and they must be well equipped by all means in order to create happiness and loyalty among the clients so that they will come again to buy the products and services and sales volume will become high and organizational objectives will be achieved.
CRM department can reduce the gap between the customer expectations and offered quality of services and products to the customers by keeping in mind all those above discussed factors for identifying their expectations and for this purpose the CRM department must improve the staff skills and must keep in considerations the factors affecting priorities and expectations and increasing the quality of services and products and through the customer the free marketing opportunity can be availed.
All the customers want to buy the products at cheap price but with high quality of the products and in this way the CRM department in the Holiday Inn must design the offers to the customers and loyal customers in the seasons and loyalty card or the valued customers card guest card can be designed and a proper strategy must be designed by this department for special offers (low cost but high quality) in order to again attract these clients and in this way the old clients will also remain in contact and the new customers will also be captured by the CRM department from the market share easily and the organizational objectives can be achieved.
The hotel customer relationship management must find out the customer’s expectations and for this purpose the CRM department must update the software and must review the whole process because some important factors are missed from the software and those factors can play their important role in identification of customer’s expectations.
Looy et al., (2007) have been stated that, to avoid by the duplications the researchers can use tables to records data. Graphical representation is most suitable form to represent data proportions and pictorial form is most suitable form to show data associations among them and making analysis is more suitable and helpful (Kitzinger, 2006). The researcher will record the results in tables form first of all and then the data will be selected in excel sheet and proper diagrams will be used to show the relationships among different factors and their associations will be presented by using pie and bar charts.
The researcher has explained in detail the way of research and the methods he has adopted to conduct this research in detail and all those resources and the associated resources, sampling size, population size and primary and secondary data gathering techniques, data presentation and tools used in this research have been discussed in detail. The researcher has explained the aims and objectives of this research here in this section and all about the procedures of this research have been explained in this section. According to Soderlund, (2008) that the researcher must keep all the record of the research conducting which includes the methods, procedures, techniques and analysis tools and population and sample size as well as the main objectives of the research must be keep in record. According to the Reinartz and Kumar, (2003) that the researcher must follow a research method and keep record of all the work, due to the research method the researcher will save the resources and cost and the results are always valid and reliable when the researcher has adopted the specific way and method to conduct the research. Here in this research method the researcher has adopted the mix of qualitative and quantitative research method and selected a Case Study as tool to conduct the research because the research is associated with the academic purpose and the researcher has no such experience o research conducting and for the inexperienced person the case study tool is the better way to conduct the research and the researcher when has no time and money and for saving the time and resources the researcher must select the combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods and in the qualitative research methods the researcher must use the questionnaires for conducting the research.
As per my calculations I came to know that the mean of the given data is 2881.524 and the median of the given data is 1810, the average that shows the mean value is the same as the mean value, has been calculated as the sum of frequency data and then divided by the 21 total days and consequently the figure is 2881.524, the standard deviation of the given data that is calculated is 2626.351 which shows that there is a big difference between mean value and the standard deviation, which showed that the value of standard deviation that the data is scattered on huge range from the mean value.
The graphical representation showed that the data is scattered from the mean value and the points showed that the values are away from the mean value, if the points found that those are near the mean value or the distance between the scattered points is less or near to the mean value it means that the data is most reliable.
As there is the difference between values is 255.2 which show that the variation is high. The value of standard deviation is high.
Quartile values are the values that if we divide the values in equal basis 1st quartile 25%, 2nd quartile means 50%, third quartile means 75%, so the lower quartile value is 1018 and upper quartile value is 9138.
The above chart shows the dates or time along x-axis and the sales volume along y-axis, which shows that there is no regularity, in the start the sales value is 1810 and the highest sales volume is 9238 the lowest is 266, but the sales volume is decreasing and increasing as per the variation in weather/ temperature.
After inserting the trend line to understand the trend of sales of beverage/ drink or to forecast the sale volume of drink in future it is clear from the drawn trend line that the sales volume will be decreases in the future but it depends on the temperature as well, in the start of the month the sales volume remain high because the trend line is above and with the passage of time the sales is going down and the line is also going downwards, it means that the sales volume is decreasing.
The above chart is the Gantt chart that shows the number of tasks along y axis/ vertically and along x-axis or horizontally is shows the time period in weeks starting and completion time. In order to calculate the critical path time and to find out the critical path first of all we need to select the roots/ paths from start to end of the project. So there are only two paths first one is that start from A and B then C then E and finally at F and ends in 21 weeks, in the 2nd path or root that start from A to B and then D, then E and finally towards F and end and in this way it will take 21 days to complete or finish the project time. The critical path that is the longest path and in this project the both are same.
|Cash out flow||700000|
|Cash in Flow||225000||225000||225000||225000||225000|
|Cash Out Flow||400000|
|Cash In Flow||110000||110000||110000||110000||110000|
As the net present values have been calculated for the both projects and in project B the value of net present is in negative so this project is rejected whereas the project A NPV is positive and that project is accepted and feasible.
For the project ‘A’ the payback period is 4 year
The cash outflow is £400,000
First year cash inflow is 110,000, so the remaining will be (400,000-110,000) = £290,000
Second year cash inflow is 110,000, so the remaining will be (290,000-110,000) = £180,000
Third year cash inflow is 110,000, so the remaining will be (180,000-110,000) = £70,000
Fourth year cash inflow is 110,000, so the remaining will be (70,000-110,000) = £-40,000
And in the fourth year the cash outflow will be achieved and this year is the payback period.
In project B the payback period is 4 year
The cash outflow is £700,000
First year cash inflow is 225,000, so the remaining will be (700,000-225,000) = £475,000
Second year cash inflow is 110,000, so the remaining will be (475,000-225,000) = £250,000
Third year cash inflow is 110,000, so the remaining will be (250,000-225000) = £25,000
Fourth year cash inflow is 110,000, so the remaining will be (25,000-22500) = £-200,000
And in the fourth year the cash outflow will be achieved and this year is the payback period.
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