The role of CRM department in Identifying Customer’s expectations to achieve organizational objectives

Chapter #:1     Introduction

1.1    Introduction

Market is a place where the buyer and seller meet their needs and want and the transaction occur, the seller sell the products and buyers buy the items as per needs and requirements (Anderson and Mittal, 2008). Bennett, (2003) has been stated that only the customer relationship management can identify the client’s requirements to identify and then for manufacturing products and services as per their requirements which includes features and values and all other functions of the products and services by considering all other factors those can create happiness among the people. Anderson, (2009) stated that customers have specific needs and want and they come to market to buy the suitable products to overcome their needs and wants similarly the business companies have the solution of customers and they came in the market to sell their products. After consuming the products the customers came to know about the results and if the results are as per their expectations and the product features are according to their expectations and their problem has been solved after using the product then the customer will be happy and satisfaction will be there among the customers otherwise he customer will be angry and the company will lose the business (Bejou et al., 2005). According to the Bennett, (2003) that, if there is no client then, there will be no business. So this is important for the organizations to have clients and their expectations are necessary for the organizations to be identified to manufacture the specific products for the clients to make sales and the sales can be made only by offering suitable products as per their expectations (Bhote, 2003). The organizations can be successful in the way that they successfully identify their needs and wants and then they can offer them the suitable products with expected quality and services (Buttle, 2007). A gap is always exists between the expectations and the offered services (Chen & Popovich, 2007) and if this gap can be reduced then the organizations can make long term relationship with the customers and sales volume could be increased by making and implementing the strategies to find out customers needs and wants. Anderson and Mittal, (2008) have been stated that only customer relationship management staff members can identify the customer’s expectations and can provide them the suitable products and quality of services because it is the main responsibility of the CRM department and this character can leads the organizations towards successful and this is only way to create and establish such strategies that can create satisfaction and happiness among the clients and this satisfaction can lead them near the success. The gap between the people expectations and their demand quality and services and the perceived quality of products and services can be reduces and minimized only by the customer relationship management if they have the proper skilled workers and the workers are already have the proper equipments and authorities to understand the client’s problems and offer them the best solutions as per their requirements (Anderson, 2009). Parasuraman et al., (2003) has been stated that it is only the department that can reduce the gap between the client’s expectations and can consider all other related factors to create brand image and to gain competitive benefits over the available competitors in the market.

1.2    Problem

Loss and profits are the final results of business operations after financial transaction has been occurred (Bejou et al., 2005). Most of the organizations could not achieve their targets (long term and short term) and these organizations suffered from the heavy financial looses and at the end either they switch the industry or they leave the business (Anderson and Mittal, 2008). There are so many problems associated with the business organizations that’s why they could not achieve their targets well in time and all those problems are associated with their negligence and due to lack of skilled workers and lack of intentions towards identifying customer’s requirements and some time due to competitors strategies the organizational strategies become fail and organizations suffered from heavy financial looses (Anderson, 2009). There is a gap exist between the customer’s expectations and the products they perceived from the manufactures and this gap have great impact on the organizational success and can also impact on the client’s satisfaction and loyalty and in this way it has the impact on the sales and growth of organization (Buttle, 2007). The organizations can minimize this gap if they have proper and suitable business strategies to identify the client’s requirements and then they pass the information to the relevant department to design and manufacture or produce such type of products and services and include all the required characteristics in the products as per client’s requirements then in such a way the organizations can achieve their long and short term targets easily otherwise in the era of high competition the competitors can lead and there will be no success (Chen & Popovich, 2007). With the development and advancement in the technology and change in the culture the client’s requirements always changed (Bejou et al., 2005). Bennett, (2003) has been stated that change in the technology and procedure always have an impact on the people’s requirements and drawbacks and benefits of technology always pay positive and negative impacts on the demand and expectations of people in a society and even then in all over the world the change in technology have an impact on the culture and human beings. So it is important for the organizations to understand the living standards and change in the expectations and behaviours of people for their business success. It is necessary for the organizations to first understand the real requirements of their potential customers and then offer them the real solution as per their problem and in this way the satisfaction can be created and the loyalty and resale is also associated with the identification of clients problems and only the CRM department can be helpful in finding out the solution, and the clients retention ratio is also associated with the CRM department’s strategies by considering client’s expectations (Bhote, 2003). Change in the environment and change in the culture and routine always change in the demand (Kitzinger, 2006). Looy et al., (2007) have been stated that among the clients happiness always leads towards satisfaction and satisfaction leads towards loyalty and customer relationship management can create the satisfaction among the clients and this satisfaction can leads the companies towards success, and the success can be only complete when the organization meets the annual sales targets.

1.3    Title

The role of CRM department in Identifying Customer’s expectations to achieve organizational objectives (A Case Study of Sainsbury Superstore in Manchester United Kingdom)

1.4    Research Question

What is the role and importance of CRM department in identification of customer’s expectations to achieve organizational objectives?

1.5    Aims and Objectives

The researcher will conduct this research to find out the main role and importance of customer relationship management departmental activities in achieving organizational objectives and for this purpose the researcher will achieve this stated aims by dividing the aim into different objectives which are given as under

1.6    Objectives

To achieve the above stated aim and as per the above stated title and research question, the researcher has been divided the objectives to achieve the main aims of the research into small objectives which are given below here

First of all the researcher will find out the main responsibilities which includes the benefits/advantages of customers relationship management departmental and its duties towards organizational objectives.

Then the researcher will disclose the impact and importance of the customer’s expectations and its importance and its role for the success of organization

The researcher will also find out the relationship between the CM departmental connection and relationships between the organizational success and customer’s requirements

All other factors those can play their role in the success of customer’s loyalty and in retaining them by considering them through customer relationship management department and including them in the strategies and implementing at the workplace

The gap will be defined in detail and its negative impacts will be finding out by the researcher and the role of CRM department in reducing this gap will be disclosed by the researcher

The main issues/problems and challenges those are main hindrance in designing and implementing its strategies for the success of organization will be disclosed and their solution will be finding out by the researcher

Finally Conclusions and recommendations will be designed and developed by the researcher as per the outcomes for improving the strategies and policies and practices in reality in the organizations for positive outcomes.

1.7    Research Questions

To achieve the above stated aims and objectives the researcher has designed the basic questions which are given as under

What is the importance of CRM department and its role in achieving organizational objectives?

What is the role of customer’s expectations in organizational success?

Is there any gap exist between client’s requirements and offered products in the selected organization?

What is the link between the customer’s requirements and how the CRM department can play its role in identifying customer’s requirements and reducing gap?

What are the draw backs of this gap and which factors must be taken into consideration by CRM department in reducing and achieving organizations objectives effectively?

What kinds of improvements are required by the CRM department to improve its policies and strategies in order to reduce and in achieving selected organization’s goals?

1.8    Research Limitations

There are following limitations which are associated with this research and researcher will minimize these limitations, these limitations are given as under

Shortage of time

Limited financial resources

The researcher has already no research conducting experience

The researcher will minimize these limitations and will discuss in detail in this section and its solution will also be discussed in this section.

1.9    Study scope

After the completion of this research the researcher may get a job in the superstore and can start his career path, and the selected organization can get maximum benefits by adopting the recommendations at the end of the research for improving its weak areas. The efficiency of the CRM department can be enhanced by implementing the effective strategies and improving the strategies and policies. The organizations in the field of super markets can be more benefited by these strategies and by acting and implementing the effective strategies and considering key and successive factors in the business strategies.

1.10  Ethical Considerations

There are so many ethical considerations are associated and attached with this research work and there are so many considerations are associated with this research those also increase the validity and reliability of the results. So by considering these considerations the researcher will not allow others (colleagues, co workers, friends and class fellows) to steel his work and the researcher will not steel colleagues, class fellow’s work and will not disclose the respondent’s data and will not use this research for another academic purpose. The researcher will not include his personal opinion and the research will be bias free, and the researcher will not use old references and scholar’s statements in the secondary data.

Chapter # 2:      Literature Review

2.1    Introduction

In this section the researcher will discuss the previous researches and the scholar statements in against and in the favour of the researcher research title and research aims and objectives. The researcher will abide by using the old research statement and will not use the unauthenticated resources to gather the review of literature.

2.2    Review of Literature

All the business organizations have their aims and objectives and to achieve those objectives the organizations manage the business activities which include the organization, resource allocation, controlling and marketing (Powell and Single, 2003). According to the Parasuraman et al., (2003) that the business organizations must achieve their sales targets for making progress and growth for its existence and it is very important for the organizations to identify customer’s needs and want and on the base of customer’s requirements the solution must be provided to them for achieving organizational objectives which includes the volume of sales enhancement, more profit and sustainable growth and in this way the organizations can play their role as social responsible for the betterment of organization. Anderson and Mittal, (2008) have been stated that customers have needs and requirements and to overcome their specific needs and wants people are always ready to pay and spend amount and in return they need the solution of their needs and wants and solution of their problems. Bhote, (2003) has been stated that there are some factors that can be helpful for an organization to find out the customer’s expectations before designing and making products and before distributing the products, so the organizations must pay their attentions towards those factors rather than to pay its attention at marketing or customer relationship management role in identifying customer’s expectation, Buttle, (2007) has been stated that those factors includes actual problem, quality, price, size, volume, availability, ingredients, promises, feedback, opinion and suggestions these factors are most helpful for the organizations to identify customer’s needs and wants. To achieve organizational objectives it is necessary to create first the loyalty and satisfaction among the customers and the organizations if pay its attention at the research and development department then the customer’s needs and wants can be identified by implementing suitable strategies (Morgan, 2004). Only the research and development department is responsible for the identification of customer’s requirements and then the marketing department is responsible for the designing, pricing, placement and promotional of those products and making it sure that the products are available in the market for buying and consuming and, furthermore the marketing department can play its role in identification and creating loyalty, happiness and satisfaction among the customers for achieving organizational objectives (Yin, 2004). Customer relationship management always play its important role in identifying organizational opportunities and customer’s expectations and playing its role for achieving organizational objectives (Anderson, 2009). This is not easy to understand and to find out the customer’s expectations with the help or with the strategies of customer relationship management because every day with the change in trends, with the change in technology and with the change in the competitors strategies and planning so it is very hard for the CRM department to find out the expectations (Bennett, 2003). According to Bejou et al., (2005) have been stated that customers have their own needs and want and they are always ready to help out the customer in creating satisfaction, happiness and loyalty and ultimately in achieving organizational objectives. There is a direct relationship between the sales and the expected products and services and in this way the organizations can achieve their targets (Bennett, 2003). It is only marketing department responsibility to make it sure and plan all the marketing strategies in such a way that the successful transaction occur in result the sales function occur so that organization can achieve its main objectives (Bejou et al., 2005). It is not important for the organizations to establish the CRM department in the organizations because in this way the organizations needs to spend more money and the results are not as per expected (Bhote, 2003). Similarly the Buttle, (2007) has been stated that the loyalty and the satisfaction can be created by the organizations through high level quality and the low price and the employees can play their role in creating loyalty among the customers and this only can be possible if the organizations consider their welfare into their strategies and pay full attention for high salaries and equipping them high quality of trainings and skills can be developed among them instead of spending high amount on the customer relationship managements and offer high quality of products and services at cheap prices as compared to the competitors effectively and efficiently (Chen & Popovich, 2007). The organizations must put attentions on the welfare of client’s and on the welfare of staff members and offer them handsome salaries for creating productive attitude and creating loyalty among the clients by offering the low price products to the customers by identifying their required items and services (Kitzinger, 2006). It is recommended for the organizations to first create strong and long term relationships with the clients and this only can be possible by the customer relationship management because the only customer relationship management is the department that can design and implement such strategies those can be helpful in achieving organization’s goals and objectives effectively as compared to other suppliers (Anderson and Mittal, 2008). Bejou et al., (2005) have been stated that it is customer relationship management responsibility to make strategies for the customers to offer them products at low prices as compared to the other suppliers and the products must be of high quality by identifying their expectations because the expectations can play their role in the sales and in achieving organizational objectives, because Anderson, (2009) has been stated that if the products are available in the market bust those products do not have the features as per customer’s needs and wants than no one will buy, and if someone will buy those products then after using the customer will become angry and there will be no sale. Chen & Popovich, (2007) have stated that the only customer relationship management department can determined the customer’s needs and their wants and can offer them the suitable solution for their problem, and in this way the organizations can be able to manufacture those products those can be as per the customers demand and their needs and the organizations can achieve their objectives. Kitzinger, (2006) has been stated that it is important for the organizations to identify the client’s requirements first and then on the basis of their requirements the products and services must be designed and manufactured and the products must be available to the customers for their buying and consuming, and according to the Saunders, (2012) this is necessary for the organizations and the customer relationship management can also play its role in recognizing the customer’s requirements and needs and these information can be helpful for the manufactures to produce and manufacture products and services as per customer’s requirements for more selling and for creating loyalty, happiness and satisfaction among them to achieve organizational objectives. According to the Looy et al., (2007) that to achieve organizational objectives it is necessary for the organizations to first of all provide the products as per demand and the loyalty can be created by the organizations for successful business operations and customer relationship management can play its role in achieving organizational objectives successfully, and according to the McDonald, (2008) that once the relationship between the organization and the customer must be based on the loyalty and long term relationship is helpful for the organizations to meet their sales targets and sales volume for the growth of organizations. So in this way the identification of customer’s needs and requirements can play their role in achieving organizational objectives.  

According to the Sugandhi, (2007) that the organizations can achieve the goals only when the customers buy the products and after consuming those products and services they become happy means the products and services must provide them the expected results for which they paid the amount (price) and in this way they will come again and they will refer other people to buy the products and services and they will recommend others and when the sales volume will become high then the organizations can make profit for sustaining growth and to become market leader in the United Kingdom. All the flow of work which is related with the identification of clients which is related and leading the organizations in achieving organizational objectives through customer relationship management and its effective strategies by implementing those strategies for identification of customer’s requirements and creating loyalty, satisfaction and happiness among the clients for achieving organizational objectives.

2.3    Frame of reference (Review Literature)

Market Leader Aims and Objectives (Sales, Profit)   Making Sales Growth Sustain the growth  

 

 

As it has been stated in the above figure that the organizations can achieve its objectives in an effective way, with the help and role of CRM department by identifying customer’s expectations

Chapter #: 3    Research Methodology

3.1    Introduction

According to the Anderson and Mittal, (2008) that researchers must select the research methods to conduct the research because the research methods always lead the researchers towards the successful outcomes and in achieving organizational objectives. In this section the researcher will describe and explain the research methods, research techniques, sampling size, sampling techniques, tools those will be used to present data, and making analysis and making conclusion, and all the other resources to gather primary and secondary data.

3.2    Research Method

Here in this section the researcher will describe the research method that will be selected by the researcher to conduct the research, Anderson, (2009) has been stated that the researcher must select one of the research method from qualitative or quantitative research methods or both of them can be used as research method. Here the researcher will select both of the methods to conduct the research for achieving all the aims and objectives of the research. The researcher will select both of the research methods to collect valid and reliable data and to achieve aims and objectives of the research. According to the Bejou et al., (2005) that the qualitative and quantitative both of the research methods are useful for the inexperienced researcher when they have limited time and limited financial resources. 

3.3    Population

All the customers and the customer relationship management staff members are the population of the research and the researcher will select the sample size among this population and “N” represent the whole number of population and “n” represents the sample size and the researcher will distribute the questionnaires (close ended and open ended questions) among them and semi structured interviews will be conducted by the researcher for achieving the aims and objectives of the research. According to the Bhote, (2003) that the researchers must involve the consumers in research process to gather valid and reliable primary data to make analysis and conclusion, similarly Bennett, (2003) has been stated that the researchers must include the departmental staff and especially the key person in the process of research conducting for achieving effective and valid information and to disclose the real factors and key successive factors. The researcher will select the key person from the customer relationship management because these people are most suitable responded and they have the valid and reliable information about the CRM department and its functionality and they have explain the responsibility and its functions more effectively.

3.4    Sample Size

Chen & Popovich, (2007) have been stated that there are some different methods to select the sample size and all the methods have their advantages and disadvantages and it depends on the researchers to select the appropriate method for sample selection. Random sampling technique is appropriate if the whole population is available, and the stratified sampling technique is most suitable when the demographic or specific group must be taken into consideration, systematic method is always adopted by the researcher when a stream of people (like in a street) are available for research conducting like every 5th person and finally cluster sampling is always referred when the respondents are far away like in some different cities and it is hard to conduct the research (Looy et al., 2007), so as the scholars have been stated that for this research the researcher must select the systematic sampling method to select every 9th customer and will distribute the questionnaire among every 9th customer, because the respondents need time to fill the questionnaires and this activity will take time. There must be about 100 respondents when the researchers planned to distribute questionnaires among them and follow qualitative and quantitative research methods (Kitzinger, 2006). The researcher has been decided to choose about 120 customers to distribute questionnaires among them. The researcher will include both the genders without any age, sex, colour and religion and ability discrimination.     

3.5    Source of Secondary Data

Looy et al., (2007) have been stated that the researchers must not include the old literature while gathering secondary data and the researcher must not include own opinion and must use different sources like books, research papers, press releases and printed reports and latest technology must be used like electronic books, electronics journals and reports and websites must be included in secondary data gathering. There are many sources available to gather secondary data and the researcher will use the books with the title of customer relationship management and customer’s expectations identification and importance of customer relationship management, journals, articles, electronic books, electronics journals, different magazines and annual reports on the role and importance of CRM department in the and the selected organization (Sainsbury) website will also be used as a source of secondary data. McDonald, (2008) has been stated that the researchers must include the rational review of literature to prove its title and research question and must avoid including the old research statements because in the old time the technology and culture and trends and needs and wants are not same as today so fresh and latest scholar’s statements must be included in the secondary data.

3.6    Source of Primary Data

According to Yin, (2004) primary data must be valid and most reliable because all the research results based on the primary data quality and on its procedures. Primary data can be gathered by conducting the interviews and by distributing questionnaires among the respondents/ samples. Interviews and the questionnaires are the valid source of primary data (Yin, 2004). Anderson and Mittal, (2008) have been stated that when the researcher could not find out the needed data from the secondary data sources then the researcher conduct the research in the market and collect the primary data about information, knowledge, behaviour, attitude, features, characteristics, awareness, intentions, trends, motivations and problems. According to the Looy et al., (2007) that the researchers have many sources to gather primary data which includes interviews, observations, questionnaires, group discussions etc. The following sources will be used by the researcher to conduct the research.

3.6.1  Case Study

According to (Anderson, 2009) that there are many benefits of case study tool used by the researchers to achieve research objectives, for example when the researcher has shortage of time and less money to spend on the research. Bejou et al., (2005) have been stated that when they have no research conducting past experience then the best option for those researchers is the case study as a tool to conduct the research. The researcher has been discussed the limitations in the first chapter that the researcher has less time and other resource shortage because the researcher has no experience as well. The researcher has been selected the Sainsbury situated in Manchester and has been implemented the CRM strategies as business operations.  

3.6.2  Questionnaires

According to the Chen & Popovich, (2007) have been stated that the researcher can gather primary data by distributing questionnaires among the respondents and the interviews are also the best way to conduct the research when the researchers have limited time and other financial resources limited. Case study is the best way to conduct the research when the researchers have the limitations like time and the other resources (Sugandhi, 2007). The researcher will select the case study “Sainsbury situated in Manchester United Kingdom” and will distribute the questionnaires among the samples by designing the effective questions and both type open ended and close ended will be included and the researcher will include both of them and the questions will be designed by keeping all the aims and objectives in their minds. According to Parasuraman et al., (2003) that, effective questionnaires include open and close ended questions. The researcher can gather valid and reliable primary data by distributing questionnaires among the respondents (Bejou et al., 2005).

3.6.3  Interviews

To gather primary data with real facts and figures the researchers must conduct the interview from key seat holders (Powell and Single, 2003). When there are some limitations associated with the research then the researcher must conduct the interviews with managers, supervisors (Saunders, 2012). So the researcher will conduct the interview with the manager of CRM department and other staff members to find out the importance, role and responsibilities of this department to achieve the research goals and objectives.

3.7    Reliability and Validity

It must be the most concern of the researcher to make sure the data validity and reliability at each and every step (Bejou et al., 2005). The researcher will consider all the ethical considerations as have been discussed in first chapter about the ethical considerations and in this way the data validity and reliability can be assured. According to Morgan, (2004) that data validity and reliability means the consistency and steadiness are the parameters of data validity and reliability.

Chapter #: 4    Project Planning

4.1    Introduction

In this section the researcher will explain the resources associated with this research and cost associated and time associated with this research will be explained and the data presentation tool and data analysis tools will be discussed.

4.2    Data Presentation and Analysis tools

Looy et al., (2007) have been stated that, to avoid by the duplications the researchers can use tables to records data. Graphical representation is most suitable form to represent data proportions and pictorial form is most suitable form to show data associations among them and making analysis is more suitable and helpful (Kitzinger, 2006). The researcher will record the results in tables form first of all and then the data will be selected in excel sheet and proper diagrams will be used to show the relationships among different factors and their associations will be presented by using pie and bar charts.

4.3    Expected Findings

The researcher has the expected outcomes in the form of that the customer relationship management can identify customer’s expectations like price, quality, size, features, volume, guarantee and warrantee and in this way after identifications these factors the organizations can achieve their main objectives (long and short term) in increasing sales by capturing and retaining old and new clients (market share) making profits and finally making growth and sustaining growth to become market leader.

4.4    Cost and Time Schedule

During this research the following table shoed the cost associated with this research. The first table will showed the associated cost and resources and next will show the time required to complete this research project.

Table 1

S. #ResourcesCost (£)
1Travelling70
2Lunch etc.100
3Stationary, Software300
4Total470

Table 2

Problem/IssueX         
Aims and ObjectivesXX        
Secondary DataXXX       
Questionnaires  XX      
Time Schedule in Weeks12345678910
Data Recording and Analysis    XX    
Making Conclusion and recommendation     XXX  
Contingency Plan        XX

4.5    Contingency Plan

The researcher has 2 weeks time as contingency period to make amendments and removing errors as per requirements

Chapter # 5:    Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1    Conclusion and Recommendations

In this section the researcher will first discuss the limitations and then will discuss the ways that he has been adopted to minimize those limitations for validity and reliability of data. Then the researcher will keep in the mind the aims and objectives of the research and then in the light of results and literature review the researcher will make conclusions. The researcher will relate the theories with the research results and will use the secondary data as a background and will use it as and when necessary to prove the results.

5.2    Recommendations

The researcher will mention the weak areas as per research result and will make necessary recommendations in the light of result and theories to improve the CRM activities more useful so that the organizations can achieve its objectives successfully. 

5.3    Further Research

Here in this research the researcher will disclose the other areas which should be taken into considerations for research those can play their role in achieving organizational objectives.

Chapter # 6:    References and Bibliography

a.   Books and Journals

Anderson, E.W. and Mittal, V. (2008) ‘Strengthening the satisfaction-profit chain’ Journal of

Service Research, 23(18), pp: 123-312

Anderson, E.W. (2009) ‘Cross Strategy variation in customer satisfaction and retention’

Marketing Letters, 33(9), pp: 111-180

Bejou, D., Ennuw, C. and Palmer, A. (2005) ‘Trust, ethics and relationship satisfaction’

Journalof Bank Marketing, 13(9), pp: 234-355

Bennett, R. (2003) ‘Relationship formation and governance in consumer markets: Transactional analysis versus the behaviourist approach’ Journal of Marketing Management, 23(12), pp: 33-156

Bhote, K.R. (2003) Beyond Customer Satisfaction to Customer Loyalty. 4th ed. New York: AMA Management Briefing

Buttle, F. (2007) Customer Relationship Management: concepts and tools, 2nd ed. Oxford:

Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann

Chen, I.J. & Popovich, K. (2008) ‘Understanding customer relationship management (CRM): People, process and technology’ Business Process Management Journal, 21(9), pp: 123-234

Engel, J.F., Blackwell, R.D. & Miniard, P.W. (2007) Consumer Behaviour, 2nd ed. London: Dryden Press

Evans, J. R. and Laskin, R. L. (2002) ‘The relationship marketing process: A conceptualization  and application’ Industrial Marketing Management, 22(9), pp: 45-123

Goddard, W. and Melville, S. (2008) Research Methodology: An Introduction, 3rd ed Lansdowne: Juta and Company Ltd

Gummesson, E. (2005) ‘Broadening and Specifying Relationship Marketing’ Asia-Australia

Marketing Journal, 21(13), pp: 123-234

Kitzinger, J. (2006) ‘Introducing focus groups’ British Medical Journal, 22(9), pp: 56-98

Looy, B.V., Gemmel, P. & Dierdonck, A. (2008) Services Management: An integrated Approach, 3rd ed. Essex: Pearson Education Limited

Morgan, D.L. (2004) Focus groups as qualitative research, 4th ed. London: Sage Publications

Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V.A. and Berry, L.L. (2003) ‘A conceptual model of service quality and its implications for future research’ Journal of Marketing, 32(21), pp: 45-132

Powell, R.A. and Single, H.M. (2003) ‘Focus groups’ International Journal of Quality in Health Care, 21(9), pp: 45-167

Saunders, M., Lewis, P. and Thornhill, A. (2012) Research Methods for Business Students 3rd ed. Essex: Pearson Education

Sugandhi, R.K. (2007) Customer Relationship Management. 4th ed. New Delhi: New age

International Publishers

Yin, R. (2004) Case study research: Design and methods.3rd ed. CA: Sage Publishing

a.   Websites

http://www.sainsburys.co.uk/sol/index.jsp [Accessed on 3rd May 2013]

McDonald, L. (2008) Customer Relationship Management – An Overview [online]Available at

<http://www.brillianceweb.com/betterwebdesign/tips_48.aspx&gt; [Accessed on 23rd April 2013]

b.   Bibliography

Denzin, N.K. and Lincoln, Y.S. (2001) Collecting and Interpreting Qualitative Materials London: Sage Publications

Ehrenberg, A.S.C. (2002) ‘Repeat Buying: facts, theory and applications’ Journal of Empirical Generalizations in Marketing Science, 11(9), pp: 113-324

Etzel, M.J., Walker, B.J. & Stanton, W.J. (2001) Marketing International Edition. 3rd ed. USA: The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc.

Gronroos, C. (1990) ‘A service quality model and its marketing implications’ European Journal

of Marketing, 21(9), pp: 56-123

Gronroos, C. (2000) ‘From Marketing Mix to Relationship Marketing: Towards a Paradigm

Shift in Marketing’ Management Decision, 21(9), pp: 112-321

Morgan, R.M. and Shelby D. H. (2004) ‘The Commitment-Trust Theory of Relationship

Marketing’ Journal of Marketing, 24(9), pp: 123-234

The role of Leadership Style in improving the performance of employees

Abstract

Every business has its own nature, some business offer services, products some businesses offer only services and others offer products and as per their business nature they have clients and for handling clients and achieving organizational objective, management provide trainings and skills to the employees for achieving goals and managers monitor them and facilitate them with appropriate resources as per situation and requirement. In order to reduce the chances of resource wastage and for maximum output from employees, management design and implement short term goals, long term objective and business policies. For maximum output from employees depend on the instructions, guidelines, resources allocation and involvement of managers and clear and agreed objectives. Managers deal the employees and evaluate their performance and give them feedback. Employees have their own interests, needs and want to overcome those needs and wants they offer their services to the organizations. A management style that describes the way and dealing methods for the managers to handle, control, manage, and allocate resources to the employees for specific outcomes. There are many management theories and leadership theories are available that the management follow and implement in their organizations for more productivity by creating and enhancing productive attitude and motivations among its employees. This research is also related with the objectives of effective management style that can motivate its employees for more productive attitude. In this research the researcher has described some motivational theories and leadership theories and found out their affect and found out the implemented management style and its affects.

In different organization according to the requirements of clients and nature of the business, services and product specification, each organization has its own specific business strategies. To control, organize the resources and leading the human resources managers are there. Organization hired the services of employees at all levels to achieve organizational objectives and to run business activities and day to day business transactions effectively. The managers bridge the gap between the higher level management and the low level management and other employees. Employee’s productive attitude can create the loyalty among the customers by handling those clients who have complaints regarding services or products. The employees can play their effective role in capturing more clients from the market and they can contribute to help their colleagues in a well manner. Employees have their own needs and wants and they offer their services to fulfil their needs and wants. Client’s satisfaction depends on the productive attitude of the employees and employee’s attitude depends on the behaviour of the managers. Manager’s attitude and behaviour depends on the organizational policies. In the work place there are many factors that can play their role significantly in enhancing the employee’s productive attitude. These factors includes pay well in time, wages rate, health and safety measures at work place, manager’s behaviour, paid holidays, sick leaves, banking holiday, colleagues support, promotion, career growth, trainings, qualification and personal growth are some factors that can play effective role in creating loyalty among employees. Work place environment can also play an important role in productive attitude of employees. It depends on the managers and policies of organization that in which manners they treat the employees to achieve organizational objectives. If employees are happy then the managerial role is so appropriate. Otherwise they need to consider these above mentioned factors for better outcomes.

Introduction

Good leadership within the workplace motivates employees to accomplish more. The best workplace and organizational leaders can create confidence in the individual workers of organization so that the individual worker completes his tasks more efficiently. Great leaders in the workplace or organizational setting can harmonize company or organizational goals with the goals and interests of the individual employees. Good leaders in a company or organizational workplace will always demonstrate enthusiasm about the work that they do and about their own place in the company or organization as a leader.

Leadership style is known as the manner and approach of providing direction, implementing plans, and motivating people (Lewin, 1939).

It is considered that a good leader is the one who uses all three approaches in order to obtain his required work. It depends on the environment and followers that which style would be suitable for that situation. There are positive or negative ways in which leaders do approach their employees. Positive ways of leadership is to demonstrate their positivity by offering rewards, bonuses and independence at workplace. Motivating the employees to boost their performance is a positive approach by leaders. At the same time, negative approach is also available which should be used with care only as it can cost on the human spirit. Such as, it is a negative approach to charge penalties for employees. Negative leaders want to push everyone into higher level of productivity. They believe that things can be done by frightening the employees with pay cut, day off, insulting in front of other employees etc. This negative approach always down falls the morale of all the employees if used wrongly and in turn results in lower productivity overall.

There are two types of approaches known as consideration and structure in leadership styles. Consideration is a type of approach where leaders care about their employees, their needs and motivate them to build a team work to achieve the higher level of productivity. Structure approach in leadership style is about the leaders who believe that productivity can be increased in organization if workers are kept highly busy.

1.1 Problem

Service providing has become more important in organizations because customers appreciate it similarly product development and cost optimization has also importance but service quality is become today more importance in organizations.

Marketing strategies has been changed due to competition and due to a range of products and services and more awareness in customers want good quality and services for which they spend the amount. Services providers become de track due to different needs of each customer and each customer has its own needs and they all want satisfaction up to maximum level, and in the market all kind of services and goods are available, all the organizations are trying their best to satisfy their clients by providing good services, by creating loyalty (Chen and Popovich, 2003). According to Sugandhi, (2002) customers have too many options these days, he has a lot of options based on customers need and want, and customer purchases what suits him/her. Distances has been reduced, there is no distance from selling to marketing strategy and vice versa, due to improvements in the product designing and due to advancements in the technology and pricing strategies and due to good service customers admire the goods or services and purchase the goods. Today companies are trying to establish relationship with their customers to create customer loyalty in order to achieve organizational objectives (Chen and Popovich, 2003).

Any business starts and ends with customers (Sugandhi, 2002).Due to this cause service providing companies now a days are trying to pay their attention towards effective customer relationship practices by having effective customer relationship management in order to understand the needs and expectations of customers and to fulfill their needs and fulfillment of promises for long term relationships with customers and retaining them for earning more profit. Relationships have significant effects on profitability and customer retention.

So it is clear that people need good services and satisfaction and they pay for it to good satisfaction, so there is a relation among quality and expectation to the service providing and quality providing, similarly long term relationship based on quality of services in order to retain customers and earning profit.

Parasuraman et al. (1985) described that there is a gap between customer perception and expectation due to following gaps, first of all management perception gap, this gap is due to wrong perception of service quality by management, service quality gap, service delivery gap, lack of marketing communication gap and perceived quality gap (Parasuraman et al. 1985). In this research the researcher will find out the gap between customer expectation and customer perceived service quality in order to fill this gap through customer relationship management to retain the customers for a long time to earn profit and to create loyalty. And find out the drawbacks of customer relation practices and give proper recommendations to the selected hotel to improve them for retaining clients, and to reduce the gap. This research will help the hotel management a lot to know that what their customers actually expect from them regarding quality of service.

1.2       Research Objectives

The main objective of the researcher is to find out the impact of effective leadership style practices in the hotel industry and the influence of effective leadership style on the growth of organization.

What are the factors of effective leadership style that can effectively contribute in the growth of an organization by implementing them in real situation?

What are the main drawbacks of leadership style in the selected hotel?

The researcher is interested in finding those factors and challenges those are the main hindrance in implementing effective leadership style.

The researcher will make necessary recommendations and suggestions for the hotel industry and for the selected hotel to implement and consider factors and changes in current leadership style to achieve organizational objectives. 

To obtain above objectives the researcher will make a link between leadership style influence on the behaviour and productive attitude of employees to offer best quality of services to the clients for customer satisfaction and customer retaining to build a long relationship with customers. Because the researcher had find out through review literature that how the service providers can improve their services at best level to satisfy their customers and how the leadership style can affect their employees in order to bring productive attitude and their work that among customers to create more loyalty, to have a long term relationship with them to generate more income by providing quality of services and satisfying their client at maximum level. This quality service provide to the customers by the selected hotel will improve the satisfaction of customers, because there may be a gap between the expectations of customers and perceived quality of service, and hence if that gap is there than there is lack of satisfaction among customers regarding quality of services, so management should improve their policies and tried their best to improve their practices and provide them the quality at the best level as the customer are expecting their feelings and thoughts, and to gauge their level of expectation and their will to remain in a long or short term with service providers, because market is full of services providers now days and as each customers has its own needs and expectations and level of satisfaction, so as many service providers are there in the market, so customers buy the services whatever they like the best one for them. By keeping all that in the mind the researcher has following objectives to conduct that research.

1.3 Organization Background

Botanic hotel is well known company that is running its business in United Kingdom since 1973 and serving the nation with its better quality of services in hotel industry. The researcher has selected Glasgow branch for research purpose. This branch is situated in the east of Glasgow United Kingdom. There are about 200 rooms available for the rent and all rooms are well equipped with latest furniture, and latest technology like lighting system, television, telephone, electronic beds, matching bed sheets, curtains and furniture colour.

This hotel is situated in the heart of city near the Botanic garden and daily in the morning it served breakfast to its customers. The staff is well educated and trained that served the clients according to their needs and expectations. All the bed rooms are well decorated. The hotel management tried at their best level first of all to provide best quality of services to its clients on the demand.  The hotel is situated near the train station and bus stop and hotel has its own free car parking (http://www.booking.com/hotel/gb/botanic-glasgow.en.html?aid=311076;label=botanic-glasgow-wyii8cHS4_eBFTS9IOIJjgS11998803420;ws=&gclid=CJ-fie2XzK4CFcYntAodp1OA0A).

The Botanic hotel uses latest technology like computerized system for advance booking and even then from all over the world the clients can book the hotel by depositing 20% in advance. The hotel keep all the record of its clients and their priorities/expected services and their needs and wants individually and in computerized system each client has been allotted a unique client code and handover client card to each client.

Chapter: 2

Literature Review

2.1       Introduction

A literature review has been conducted initially for the research proposal. Books and Journals and internet websites have been researched and selected contents are included in this research proposal. The researcher will provide here the review literature about customer relationship management and about the services quality and communication, comfort, privacy and all other factors which are necessary for this research.

2.2       Customer’s Loyalty

Customers’ loyalty to the creation is very important to the accomplishment of any organisation because it is not an job to hold clients devotion, according to Bhote, (2006) that client’s closeness and happiness always force the increase of organization, more accuracy, more happiness and more completion forever participate a helpful role wherever as low authenticity play unhelpful role and the buyer may end to buy manufactured goods in prospect. Schlesinger and Heskett, (2001) recommended that the business must give the notice and assign the assets in identify the actual wants and requirements of customers and then carry gladness in the middle of them by fulfilling them. They encompass discuss the significance of humanizing the employees and as long as them good information all the way through some teaching to treat the clients in best way by suitable and useful infrastructure skills, and administrations must put in order them and calculate their presentation frequently.  Zeithamlet al. (2000) said that low quality of services provided to the clients always lead to generate complaints, and skills and appropriate trainings are required to handle those complaints registered by the clients. Employees need skills and knowledge to handle clients and specific authority to handle clients in affective way, effective way means that to solve their problems and creating satisfaction among them. Similarly Schneider and Bowen, (2009) stated that effective way of communication can play effective role in creating loyalty and satisfaction, because communication is a tools that can be used effectively in identifying their needs and requirements and employee’s can provide better solution by understanding their requirements. According to Helgesen, (2006) that companies can earn more revenue and can grow rapidly by creating the loyalty and satisfaction level among its employees and loyalty and happiness and satisfaction can be created among employees by offering better quality of services through appropriate skills of communication. Client’s loyalty is more important for the organizations because the repurchasing of services and products is directly related with the loyalty and satisfaction. Client’s loyalty becomes the cause of repurchasing. Creating loyalty among clients through offering quality of services and products depends on the behavior and style of employees and employees are motivated towards offering/ providing best quality of services to the clients depends on the leadership style of managers. When the employees are happy with the policies and organization pay its full attentions towards needs and wants of employees then the employees will pay their attentions towards creating client’s loyalty.

2.3       Quality of service offered by the employees

The researcher is interested in the employee’s services level of quality that they provide to the clients because when employees are happy then the qualities of services offered to the clients create more level of satisfaction that is trigger in repurchasing more services and telling other peoples to buy services and products from this organization. Quality of services included communication skills to handle client in short time, fast response, well identifying their requirements and prompt reply to clients to solve their problems in order to creating loyalty and happiness among them for more revenue and reference. According to the Antony and Antony, (2004) stated that quality of services means that very quick response to the customers, quick response to their contacts in order to supply them best solution of their problems, needs and wants. Better quality of services means that there is no any gap in between the offered quality of services and the expected quality of services and products.

Zeithaml et al. (2001) stated that good quality of services and employee’s attitude are more important factors that are very helpful in generating more revenue for an organization through satisfying to its customers. Schlesinger and Heskett, (2001) they both have described the attributes of better quality of services to the clients, which included quick response and best solution to their problems. They both also stated that the organizations must provide best services on regular basis and check the performance of employees and managers must arrange workshops and courses for employees to improve their skills and competencies to handle the clients. The respond must be very quick and employees must have authority to provide solution for creating loyalty. The researcher found out that client need quality of services, and the quality of services or products depends on the trainings and skills of employees. Ultimately when there is no difference between client’s expectations and offered services quality then the clients will be happy and repurchase frequency will increase.

2.4       Managers Attitude, Behaviour

This is the main objective of research is to find out the positive affect and impact of manager’s attitude (leadership style) on the sales and growth of organization. Leadership style is actually the behaviour of managers and the style of managers that how the managers deals with the employees at work place and how they treat with the employees, how they allocate the resources, how managers create friendly and trusty environment or strictly environment at work place, the consequences affect the sales and growth in all kind of industries. To handle the old clients and their complaints is very important for the organizations. It is the manager’s attitude that brings happiness and satisfaction among the employees. Manager’s attitude and behaviour is more important in creating more productive attitude among the all employees. There are many factors like wages rates, over time and over time rate according to the law and legislation. Safety issues, paid salaries, career growth, promotion, benefits and more factors can play their role in creating productive attitude among employees (Reichheld and Kenny, 2001).  Parasuraman et al. (2001) has been described that customer’s complaints can be handled more effectively by satisfying the employees of organizations. When the employees will be happy and will be benefited by the facilities and will be happy with the manager’s attitudes then the employees will provide better quality of services by identifying the needs and wants of clients in effective way. According to Schlesinger and Heskett, (2001) clients can be deal effectively by offering them best services and good values of products as per client’s need and wants and by recognizing their problems. They also said that there are many factors that can play their role in clients handling and satisfaction them. Parasuramanet al. (2001) supported by saying that clients become discourage up to 19% just due to low level of services to the customers. When there is no any gap between the client’s expectation and the needs and wants of customers and the services offered by the organization then the client become happy and the employees can offer the best services to the clients when they are fully supported physically and morally supported by the managers and well equipped with specific trainings and skills then the organizational objectives can be achieved effectively.

According to Dimitriades, (2006) there are some variations exists between the expectations and the offered quality of services to the client’s this is mainly due to poor communication between the clients and the employee and the service providing department. When the employees have communication skills then this variation can be minimized even then can be removed and employee can recognize the actual needs and wants of clients, there is another difference between the best quality (expected) and the offered quality of services or product.

2.5       Organizational sale and growth

According to Yeung et al. (2002) more revenue can be generated through more sales and growth of organization depends on the volume of sale. Client’s loyalty and level of its satisfaction are two main factors that play their vital role in enhancing sales. Better quality of services that skilled workers and managers have implemented such policies to make sure the best quality of services also enhance the satisfaction level of clients first by recognizing their expectations. Employees are always motivated by the managers. Their activities are always influenced through the activities and through the policies of organization that are implemented by the managers and the work place environment that motivate and bring happiness among employees by satisfying them as per their needs and wants.

Homburg, (2007) has been supported this statement and said that there is a deep link between the organizational growth and the level of satisfaction of the employees and client’s level of satisfaction. There is a logic that when the employees are benefited by the organization then they will fully devoted themselves towards achieving organizational objectives and will tried their best to satisfy the clients at their best level. The employee’s happiness and their level of satisfaction are directly related with the managerial behaviour. Managers can play their role and behaviour can more motivate the employees towards the productive attitude of employees.

Dimitriades, (2006) has stated that when the employees are satisfied by the managerial behaviour then the probability of client’s satisfaction also increases at highest level and become cause of organizational growth. When the employees have best environment of working and are satisfied with their benefits then the level of devotion towards achieving organizational growth also become high. Some factors influence the contentment of consumers which includes the attitudes of workers and the way of services delivering, so when the clients received quality of services. The organizational growth is related with the repurchasing (frequency of sales). And frequency of sales is related with the client’s loyalty, client’s loyalty is related with client’s satisfaction and client’s satisfaction depends on the previous experience of clients after consuming the products or services. The offered services depend on the performance of skilled and well trained qualified employees. Skills, trainings and quality of services offered by the employee are related with the motivation level of employees. Employee’s motivation, productive attitude depends on the attitude of managers. This attitude comes from the leadership style of those managers according to the business policies implemented in the work place.

2.6       Customer’s satisfaction, customer’s holding and Sales Skills of Employees

According to the Giese and Cote, (2000) stated that employees can handle the clients effectively if they have very good skills as per needed and as per situation they have the proper authority to handle the client, and this is manager’s duty to assign such authorities to the employees to handle the situation and providing the better solution to the clients. It is very important to create the trust worthy environment at the work place among the employees and all the employees should help each other and share the knowledge and experience to find out the solution of problem, in such a way the client can be handle more effectively and satisfaction level will increase. Employees must give the priority and quick response to the clients when they are looking for some help. As Giese and Cote, (2000) stated that that employees through good skills of communication can handle the clients. So the managers must pay full attentions on the communications skills and must provide chance of trainings on regular intervals to improve their skills to satisfy the clients at maximum level. And satisfied clients become cause of increase in sales. Similarly Gonzalez et al. (2007) described that employees must pay their full attention towards the quality of services through its skills. It is the quality of services that can play its important role in satisfaction of customers well in time on priority basis. The clients feel that the company take care their clients in their first priority. These clients then become reference groups for other people and in this way the organization have a chance to capture more clients from the market. McQuitty et al. (2000) has been stated that organizations must play their role in holding the old clients because old clients do purchasing repeatedly and contribute their role in achieving organizational objectives in maximizing the sales volume and ultimately organization can earn more revenue. The employees of organization can retain old clients through their interpersonal skills. Management can measure the qualities and characteristics of its employees through implementing and having standards in organizations. And the managers must provide proper feedback to the concerned employees and as per need they must arrange training sessions and workshops to improve the skills and competencies of low performance employees. According to Wang et al. (2007) that there is a relationship exist between the satisfaction of customers and the employee’s skills to handle the complaints of clients. Skilled and well trained employees can handle the client’s complaints and in this way they can create more loyalty among the clients through effective communication skills and the communication skills depends on the training and qualification that managers arrange to teach the employees.

2.7       Workplace environment role in creating productive attitude among employees

According to Schlesinger and Heskett, (2001) have described that managers are responsible in the organizations to make it sure that the organizational policies that are implemented in the work place are appropriate for the employees and employees are satisfied with them. And as per requirement the managers must take significant action to provide necessary facilities and allocate proper resources to the employees so that organizational objectives can be achieved without wastage of time and resources. And it is the responsibility of employees to devote their energies to achieve organizational objectives by participating in the team work. They should help each other openly and should show trust on each others. The managers must provide all the basic facilities to the employees at work place and make it sure regularly that all the health and safety measures are properly installed at work place. 

Williams et al. (2001) has supported to the above statement by saying that managers must take the necessary steps towards the employee’s betterment, and must consider their promotions, recognizing their efforts, prizes, increments in salaries and other facilities like medical allowance to enhance the motivation among the employee to achieve company goals.

Antony and Antony, (2004) stated that administration must check the safety measures and all other necessary measures like machines and the proper checking and changing spare parts of machines and check the cleaning and neatness to make it sure that workers are safe while working. They must ensure that all the employees are insured and insurance must be the fundamental part of legal requirement. Some of the scholars have been argued in this favour that employees of company must be ready to take necessary actions to make satisfaction to the customers. Employees of the organizations must be well educated that how to deal the customers, they must be well aware about presentations of administration’s message and policy while dealing with a client and in the result of this the customer feels that he or she is important for the company, similarly the employees know that how to play role in a team while considering themselves as team member, the supervisors and administration of the customer care staff essentially educate the staff and gave them authority to their staff member to help out the customer at maximum and possible level (Schlesinger and Heskett, 2001). Similarly Bolton and Drew, (2001) stated that identifying the employees problems and providing them best solution because employees are the main assets that contribute in the growth of organization if they are properly motivated. Similarly Buttle, (2005) has focused on the employee’s benefits that at the workplace if employees are happy and their needs are being under considerations with the passage of time and all rules and regulations are implemented for the betterment of employees then the motivational level will be enhanced.

Looy et al. (2003) has stated that for the best quality of services provided b y the employees it is essential that the environment at the work place must be friendly rather than strictly. Organizations must invest money for the betterment of its employees. The employees in the organizations can handle the client’s complaints well in manner if they are equipped with the authorities to provide suitable solution of their problem.

It is concluded that there is a deep link between the work place environment and the employee’s motivation.

2.8 Leadership style

According to the Adeniyi, (2007) the effective leadership style can bring the change in the organization. According to the Gill (2006) there is a deep relationship between the code of conduct and the leadership style in an organization. Winkler (2010) has stated that leadership style must be implemented as per the era and must be in practice fully for certain outcomes.

Bush (2003) stated that effective leadership style can play its important role in creating and enhancing the motivation in the organization in the employees for specific outcomes. Cooper (2011) has stated that leadership style should be result oriented and effectual. Leadership styles are actually the part of business strategies used for the betterment of employees and for the appropriate flow of work to prevent wastage of resources and making it sure that the appropriate resource allocation in the organization. Kippenberger (2002) the manager must have multicultural attitude and behaviour at work place for significant outcomes. He also argued that the leadership style must be designed by considering nature of business and the objectives of business organization and status of organization into origin. Managers have impact on business transactions. Managers are the main core of business. Managers are responsible for day to day task achievements. Managers play their role as organizer, controller, resource allocator, problem solver and leader. Managers are also responsible for the change and satisfaction of employees. There are many factors that can play their role at work place in creating productive attitude among the employees effectively like pay in time, and pay rates as per rules and regulations, work place safety issues, paid holidays, family problems and counselling career, personal growth.

Employee’s Productive attitude [Employee’s training, Skills, Competencies]  

2.9       Conceptual Framework for Literature Review

 

The researcher came to know through the review literature that there is significant affect of leadership style on the organizational growth through creating productive attitude among the employees. There is only one way to increase the sales, and generating more revenue and earning more profit if there are more sales. Frequency of sales can be enhanced if the clients are satisfied and there is no any difference between the client’s expectations and the offered services then this is possible. The client will again come for hiring services or to purchase the product. Every organization has one objective to make more profit. The profit can be generated if there is more sale, and sales volume depends on the previous experience of the client when he or she has buy the product and the product has fulfilled client’s needs and wants. In the hotel industry service quality is more important as compared to other industries. So in hotel industry employees need trainings and special skills to treat in well manners with client to offer them best quality of services and products. If employees are happy with the environment and all those factors that are related with their needs and demands can play role in creating and enhancing the productive attitude among employees. Managers are responsible for leading, controlling, resource allocation and making it ensure that the employees are happy with the work environment and they are happy with the pay package and other incentives and they are offering all those benefits and facilities as per rules and regulations like paid holidays, sick leaves, manager’s attitude, work place safety measures, equal treatment with all employees. Organizations designed the policies to achieve its goals and objectives. Managers follow the policies which are basically the instructions to do business in effective way. Employees play their role in achieving daily transactions and daily tasks to achieve organizational long term and short term goals. Managers are responsible for their behaviour, resource allocation, performance measurement, providing all those resources well in time. Managers are responsible for controlling, problem solving, leading and organizing all the resources in an organization. Employees are the resources for an organization. Employees are the main assets for an organization.

To carry on the business day to day transactions organizations have policies that are actually set of rules, regulations and code of conduct. Managers follow these rules and regulations to do daily business operations and employees are controlled, lead and organized by the managers. Employees handle and offer the services to the managers. Clients need better quality of services and products to fulfil their needs and wants. When clients are happy and customers are satisfied by consuming those services and products they will come again to repurchase and ultimately sales and revenue will be generated and this will become the factor of growth for an organization. The researcher comes to know after review of literature that there is a deep link between the leadership style and organizational growth.

Chapter: 3

Research Method

3.1       Research Methodology

The researcher has described the research method in detail in this chapter. The researcher has selected the case study to collect the primary data because the researcher is a student and has limited time and budget. According to Soderlund, (2008) the research methodology provides the road map for conducting the research according to the main objectives of the research.

3.2       Objectives of the research

The main objective of the researcher is to find out the impact of effective leadership style practices in the hotel industry and the influence of effective leadership style on the growth of organization.

What are the factors of effective leadership style that can effectively contribute in the growth of an organization by implementing them in real situation?

What are the main drawbacks of leadership style in the selected hotel?

The researcher is interested in finding those factors and challenges those are the main hindrance in implementing effective leadership style.

The researcher will make necessary recommendations and suggestions for the hotel industry and for the selected hotel to implement and consider factors and changes in current leadership style to achieve organizational objectives. 

3.3       Research method

The researcher has selected the qualitative research method to conduct the research.

According to Soderlund, (2008) research method actually guide the researcher that how to conduct the research according to the aims and objectives of the research.

The research method contains in detailed about the data, sources of data, objectives of research, material and population and sample size.

In this research the researcher has used the questionnaires to the employees of selected hotel and conducted the interview of manager and asked a set of questions. The main purpose of interview and questionnaire was to collect the primary data.

According to Reinartz and Kumar, (2003) journals, e books, websites, articles are best sources to gather secondary data for conducting the research.

3.4       Case study selection

The researcher has selected the case study to conduct the research. For conducting qualitative research case study is the best one solution to achieve qualitative research results (Feagin et al. 2001). Stakes, (2005) has been stated that when there are short time and limited resources then the best way is to select case study to conduct quantitative research. In this way the researcher can conduct interviews and can complete surveys in limited time and can achieve specific goals and objectives of the research. In order to achieve reliable and valid results the researcher should adopt quantitative research by making questionnaires and conducting interviews or interview with the key person in an organization by selecting as case study even then in short period of time (Stakes, 2005).

According to Powel and Single, (2006) case study is the best option for the researcher to carry on the research with specific and significant objectives in limited time and with limited resources by asking a set of question from authorities and the other staff members.

The researcher has distributed the questionnaires among the staff members of Botanic hotel and the main objective of questions was to asked about the relationship among the leadership style, employee’s productive attitude and organizational objectives.

3.5       Primary and Secondary Data sources

The researcher has been used website of Botanic hotel, many journals, electronic journals, articles, libraries, books on the topic of clients loyalty, employee’s loyalty and leadership style and its outcomes and some other hotels website to gather secondary data to support the topic and the researcher believed that secondary data is helpful in gathering primary data for this research.

The researcher has designed the questionnaires that contained fifteen questions and the researcher has distributed these questionnaires among the employees and asked about the relationship between the manager’s behaviour and work placement environment and some other factors that can influence the productive attitude of employees. The researcher has conducted the interviews of manager and asked some questions regarding their role in the organization and related with leadership style.

3.6       Population and sample size

The researcher has selected fifty (50) employees and distributed all the questionnaires among the employees in order to gather primary data. The sample size was 50. Total number of employees is 250 at the hotel, but due to limited time spam the researcher has selected every 5th person (systematic and randomly) for asking questions. The researcher has selected both male and female genders and age range was 19 years old to 50 years old.

3.7       Data reliability and validity

The researcher has recorded all the primary data in the table form so that to avoid from data duplication and minimizing error chance. The researcher has avoided taking data from Wikipedia and did not steel data from class fellow or colleague works and did not disclose its own results to any one for misuse of data. After data gathering and recording data into table form the researcher designed the bar and pie chart to show the percentage. The researcher has designed all the questions on the topic of managerial attitude and workplace issues.

Powel and Single, (2006) stated that data gathered through conducting research must be valid and reliable.

According to Powell et al. (2006) the researcher must ask the different questions from the respondents and multiple questions from respondents and record the results in a sequence and in well manners in order to make sure the data reliability and data consistency.

3.8       Questionnaires

The researcher has designed the questionnaires and focus on the objectives and main aims of the research. The researcher has used both closed ended and open ended questions in the questionnaires. The researcher was interested in the impact of effective leadership style on the sales and growth of organization. The researcher main aim was to know about the importance of effective leadership style and the researcher want to know that which factors can affect the leadership style. The researcher main aim was to know that what should be the managerial role in creating productive attitude among the employees and which factors can play the role in creating productive attitude among the employees to enhance the sales volume of organization. The researcher has used easy language while designing questions and tried his best to cover all the areas. The researcher has included all the questions in the appendices.

Q:        Are you happy with the manager’s attitude?

Q:        Are you happy with the work environment in the hotel?

Q:        Which kind of environment would you like at work place?

Q:        Have you ever shared your knowledge and experience with your colleagues at work place?

Q:        Are you happy with the company policies regarding respect, honour, salary in time, workplace safety, holidays?

Q:        Do you feel that there should be some changes are necessary at work place that can bring change in the productive attitude of employees?

Q:        Do you believe that

Q:        Select one or more than one from below that in which area the change is necessary?

Q:        Are you agreed with the company’s objective to achieve them?

Q:        Do you have proper skills and resources allocated by the manager to accomplish daily task?

Q:        Does the company check your performance and give you feedback regarding your performance (appraisal or notice regarding lacking skills or capabilities)?

Q:        Is there any link between manager’s behaviour and productive attitude?

Q:        Do you believe that there is a link between work place environment and employee’s loyalty?

Q:        Do you believe that there is a link between manager’s/ Supervisor attitudes and behaviour on your productive attitude?

Q:        Do you believe that managers can play their role in enhancing employee’s productive attitude?

Q:        Which factors can play their role in increasing employee’s loyalty?

            Select one or more from the given below list.

3.9       Interviews

The researcher arranged a meeting with the managers at Botanic hotel to ask some questions about the leadership style with the manager. Interviews are the best techniques to gather primary data on a specific topic or issue. There two people involved in the interview. Basically in the interview there are always two parties involved. There are many advantages of interview. The data gathered through using interview provide full range and valid and reliable data to the interviewer (Soderlund, 2008).

The researcher has used semi structured technique to conduct the interview because there are many advantages of using semi structured interviews. The information gathered through semi structured interview always provides exact data as per the aims and objectives of the research. The researcher can obtain the information free of discrimination while using semi structured interview. The researcher selects the interviewee as per his own choice so there is always no chance of inappropriate person that can deliver inappropriate information. The researcher has the chance to convey the aims and objective to the respondents regarding each question and in response appropriate and according to the situation and according to the specific problem he or she can gather information.

Q: How would you explain your leadership qualities?

Q: What are your role and responsibilities?

Q: What are the ethics and values of a leader?

Data Analysis and Presentation

During primary data gathering the researcher has designed these following questions and recorded all the answers carefully to avoid from duplication.

Male=    25

Female= 25

Question No.1:            Are you happy with the manager’s attitude?

Answer:

Yes:

No:

RespondentsYesNoTotal
Male20525
Female22325
Total42850

The researcher has designed this question to know about the attitude of manager in the organization because attitude has affected on the productive attitude of employees. There were total 50 respondents and majority replied that yes the attitude of manager is good with them the main purpose of this question was that at work place the attitude of immediate boss has an effect on the productive attitude of employees. The above chart shows that 42 respondents among 50 are satisfied with the manager’s attitude and only a minimum number of respondents are not happy with the manager’s attitude.

Majority of the respondents replied that yes at the hotel they are happy with the manager’s attitude. 84% replied that they are happy with the manager, where as only 16% are not happy with the manager, they may be due to unseen event and may be due to their more expectations from manager they are not happy with the manager’s attitude. According to survey 84% of total are happy with good behaviour and attitude of manager because of his ethics and paying respect. But the rest of 16% and not happy because the behaviour of manage change at work pressure.

Question No.2:            Are you happy with the work environment in the hotel?

Answer:

                                    Yes:

No:

RespondentsYesNoTotal
Male23225
Female24125
Total47350

Here in this question the researcher has tried to asks and want to confirm the work environment because there is a link between the work environment and the productive attitude, 45 respondents has replied that they are satisfied and happy with the work environment at the hotel and only 5 people are not happy may be due to stress, unwillingness or any other problem. The respondents are mix males and female because in this hotel males and female are working together. The researcher has found that majority is happy with the work environment that include safety measurements, managerial orally support and policies and working system and working as a team member.

Almost people are happy because the environments and usually depends on staff behaviour and in that hotel the staff is especially trained for that purpose and are accompanied with all comfortable essential. The rest of some people are not fully happy due to the demanding improvement of some policies.

Question No.3:            Which kind of environment would you like at work place?

Answer:

                                    Friendly/ Trusty:

Strict:

RespondentsFriendlyStrictTotal
Male25 25
Female25 25
Total50050

The researcher has designed this question in order to know about the work environment in the hotel and the preference of work environment either it is friendly or strict. In the friendly environment employees are actually feel free and more confidence in them and they work with more heartedly to achieve organizational objectives and they will offer better quality of services to the clients. Friendly environment is such an environment that each employee support other as per his or her experience and morally and physically, brain storming is also essential, in friendly environment leaders /manager’s have trust in their employees to accomplish task and they dedicated authorities to the employees and in rewards the employee feels happy and they feel proud and they remain happy while work and dedicate their selves more heartedly and productivity increases and in hotel industry the employees offer better quality of services to their clients. 100% respondents respond that they like friendly environment because in friendly environment they can perform more quality of work rather than they remain in stress whole day.

This demanding point is fully voted in friendly work place because the only in friendly condition we can share our problems and ideas in hierarchy of upper and down. The employees need trusty/ friendly environment at work place. The productivity increases due to friendly environment because in stress situation it is not possible, employees will remain happy and they will put their energies to achieve organizational objectives by devoting himself/ herself with whole heartedly.

Question No.4:            Have you ever shared your knowledge and experience with your     colleagues at work place?

Answer:

                                    Yes:

                                    No:

Serial No.YesNoTotal
Male18725
Female151025
Total331750

The researcher has designed this question because there is a deep link between the morally, ethically and physically support to the colleagues because when employee is working as a team member then it is essential for every team member to participate equally and support each other to achieve win situation, being team worker the goals and objectives remain same. 33 respondents out of 50 respond that they support their colleagues but 27 among 50 they do not support their colleagues at the work place. This is very dangerous situation because in a team it is important to support each other and this may be due to the policy or due to the manager’s instructions. The manager must think and high level management must think and change their policy and make it sure that all employees must work as team member rather than in a group. 27 out of 50 is significant figure which is not negligible. 

Many of us do the sharing of experience, Knowledge and ideas with senior and colleagues for the improvements. The rest is wishing to do so but due to personal behaviour and attitude of employs they are unable to do so. In some situations colleagues can play their role in creating clients satisfaction. Similarly as in hotel industry service quality is most important as compared to other factors, client’s complaints handling and satisfying them as per their needs and wants. Client’s satisfaction is possible when there is no difference between client’s expectations and perceived quality of products and services.

Question No.5:            Are you happy with the company policies regarding respect, honour, salary in time, workplace safety, holidays?

Answer:

Yes:

No:

RespondentsMaleFemale
Salary2224
Respect2025
Work Place Safety2322
Holidays2525
Promotion2324
Trainings2423
Feed back2521
Morally Support2222
Other1213

The researcher has designed this kind of question because the researcher wants to know about the factors that can influence on the productive attitude of employees. Leadership style can increase or decrease the employee’s attitude. And manager’s style of doing work is depends on the company policy and the above triggers are those triggers that can play their role in the productive attitude to offer better quality of services and clients handling and all those employees like account/ finance department, chefs, kitchen department, delivery department, laundry department, store, cleaning department, booking, customer services all are integrated with each other and they are performing their jobs like a system, the mistake of a single person or department can become a hindrance in the way of delivering best quality of services to the clients and loose one client. There are many factors that can play their effective role in increasing the productive attitude among the employees, majority of the employees can be motivated through handsome salary on time, extra time payments, respect at work place they feel proud to be a team member, work safety, properly safety measures like proper fire exits, safety cautions, proper training regarding how to operate machines, equipments, tools, paid holidays, sick leave, maternity leaves, proper promotion in time promotion, seniority system, regular pay, career growth, personal growth, proper performance based feedback and necessary trainings to improve skills in order to achieve organizational objectives by offering better quality of services. All the responses are shown in charts and in table form which is easy to understand.

Almost are happy but other complain that they should receive in cash and demand some advance salary. This is not possible according to company policies. 92% are happy with the company policies those are implemented in the organization. But 8% respondents are not happy with company policies due to some reasons like holidays, work place safety, pay, over time and trust etc. 

Similarly respect at work place is much important, because this factor play its vital role in creating loyalty among employees for more productive attitude towards achieving organizational objectives. Majority of the respondents 84% responded that respect is an important factor in creating loyalty at work place among employees. 16% are not agree, may be they consider other factors important as compared to respect. They may prefer other factors.

Here 90 % majority significant volume showing that safety measures are very important and majority believes in the safety measure that can play its role in creating loyalty and loyalty can play its role in creating productive attitude and hence the clients work to create loyalty among clients to satisfy them and ultimately achieving organizational objectives.

Every employee has the right for career growth. Career growth depends on the performance of an employee. Every organization has its own policy for employee’s performance measurements and promotional criteria. With the promotion employees get more benefits like power, authority, increments in salary and other benefits as per the policy and nature of business. 94% responded that career growth also play an important role in creating employee’s loyalty.

As promotion is depends on the performance, if the performance is poor then it is organizational responsibility to check the week areas, and necessary skills and qualifications to improve employee’s skills and competencies to achieve organizational objectives. 94% respondents replied that trainings and courses can play their role in creating loyalty among employees. Providing trainings to the appropriate employees is also manager’s responsibility.

Feedback providing is also responsibility of manager’s to provide to the employee when they need it. And to create trust, friendly, pay in time etc are also responsibilities and characteristics of good managers and good leadership style included leadership, controllers and organizer qualities in managers. Managers are depending on the organizational policies, but with the passage of time, improvements in processes, change in technology affect the policies and clients needs and wants also have affect on the policies and procedures of organizations. When there are expectations of clients and they spend money to satisfy themselves their wants and needs. Similarly employees offer their services to employers. Employers pay them salaries and incentives and other benefits on the behalf of employee’s performance. Different companies have different policies implemented in their organizations.

Question No.6:            Do you feel that there should be some changes are necessary at work place that can bring change in the productive attitude of employees?

Answer:

                                    Yes:

No:

RespondentsYesNoTotal
Male20525
Female22325
Total42850

The researcher has designed this question to know about the improvements/ changes that are required to increase productive attitude among the employees, the majority responds that yes there is need of change to increase the attitude of employees towards the productivity. Only 8 people among 50 are not agree with this statement and may be they are happy with all the circumstances and may be they do not have such a knowledge that some changes can improve the productive attitude.

Question number 5 and question number 6 are related with each others. All those factors that can affect the productive attitude of employees, all those factors are discussed in the chapter number five. 84% respondents believe in that salary well in time, over time, work place safety, respect etc. Only 16% are not agree they think that actually instead of leadership style there should be no link between other employees with each other and they are more conservative people, they just come to their jobs and they ate not interested in their career growth. But they are only interested in manager’s attitude and in organizational policies. This question was designed by the researcher in order to know that the organizational policies can change the productive attitude of employees or not. But after gathering primary data the researcher come to know that yes the policies of organization can play in motivating employees to achieve organizational objectives which are ultimately to earn more profit and as in secondary data it is clear that if the services are high, and the quality of the services are better and are according to the expectations of the employee then it is easy to generate more revenue, because when there is no difference in the expectations and the perceived quality of services then it is easy to achieve organizational objectives. The majority of the respondents replied that yes leadership style that define that how to motivate people and how to enforce employees to do job in the organization to achieve organizational objective have deeply link with productive attitudes.

Question No.7:            Select one or more than one from below that in which area the change is necessary?

Answer:

Behaviour:

Pay:

Communication:

Work condition:

Fringe benefits:

Supervision:

Promotion:

Decision making Employee’s involvement:

Support (Morally, Physically):

Knowledge Sharing:

AreaMaleFemaleTotalPercentage (%)
Behaviour25714
Pay33612
Communication42612
Work Condition3148
Trainings23510
Fringe benefits1236
Supervision23510
Decision Making Involvement32510
Morally Support43714
Physically Support32510
Experience sharing23510

The researcher has designed this question to now that in which area change is necessary in order to enhance the productive attitude among employees. The researcher has asked to respondents because all those areas are in the best interest of employees. All employees have their own needs and want, and they also want to fulfil their requirements. They prefer their own needs and when their needs are overcome then they will devote their selves with whole heartedly towards achieving organizational objectives. All these areas are necessary and important to consider because these are important and can play role in creating loyalty and productive attitude among employees.

Question No. 8:           Are you agreed with the company’s objective to achieve them?

Answer:

                                    Yes:

                                    No:

RespondentsYesNoTotal
Male25025
Female25025
Total50050

Actually the researcher wants to know about the clarity that the employees may know about the objective for which the company is striving for. When all the employees are well known about the organizational objectives and are agreed to achieve them. If they are agreed to achieve them then they can perform in well manners. Because they also know all the operational activities and ideas that which resources are required to accomplish the task and it is the manager’s responsibility to let them know the employees about the objectives of organization and in regular meetings he or she must make it sure that the proper resources are allocated at right time and make it sure that all employees have required skills and competencies and knowledge to get output.

Question No. 9:           Do you have proper skills and resources allocated by the manager to accomplish daily task?

Answer:

                                    Yes:

                                    No:

Serial No.YesNoTotal
Male19625
Female21425
Total401050

The researcher actually want to know about the manager’s attitude that how much the manager is responsible regarding his/ her own responsibilities, 40 out of 50 respondents replied that yes the manager allocated them required resources at right time. Proper resource allocation to the right person at right time always leads employees towards more productivity. 80% majority respond that resources are allocated well in time where as 20% respond that resources were not allocated at proper time. So this shows that there is lacking in leadership style. When the manager is not allocating proper resources to all employees then it is not possible to achieve organizational objectives well in time effectively.

Question No. 11:         Does the company check your performance and give you feedback regarding your performance (appraisal or notice regarding lacking skills or capabilities)?

Answer:

                                    Yes:

                                    No:

RespondentsYesNoTotal
Male121325
Female091625
Total212950

The researcher has asked this question to know that the performance of employees is being regularly checked and necessary training to improve employees are also being organized by the company or not. So after gathering data from employees in fact the researcher com to know that majority responds that there is no properly check up regarding performance checkups and there is no so good appraisal and recognitions for the hardworking employees at this hotel. 

Question No. 12:         Is there any link between manager’s behaviour and productive attitude?

Answer?

                                    Yes:

                                    No:

RespondentsYesNoTotal
Male25025
Female25025
Total50050

The researcher has asked about the link between the managerial roles in productive attitude in achieving organizational objectives through creating productive attitude among employees. The entire employee’s are agreed and they believe in managerial role that managers through their attitude and policies they can create productive attitude among employees.

Question No. 13:         Do you believe that there is a link between work place environment and employee’s loyalty?

Answer?

                                    Yes:

                                    No:

RespondentsYesNoTotal
Male25025
Female25025
Total50050

The researcher has designed this question to know the relationship between employee’s loyalty and the workplace environment. 100% despondent replied that there is a strong relationship between loyalty and work place. This relationship exists because of employee’s self satisfaction. Work place environment includes safety, behaviour, attitude, co workers attitude, organizational policies for the welfare of employees.

Question No. 14:         Do you believe that there is a link between manager’s/ Supervisor attitudes and behaviour on your productive attitude?

Answer?

                                    Yes:

                                    No:

RespondentsYesNoTotal
Male24125
Female23225
Total47350

The researcher has designed this question to know about the link between productive attitude of employees and the behaviour and attitude of immediate boss or manager or supervisor. The majority of the respondents replied that yes there the link exist between productive attitude and the behaviour. This is because of the self satisfaction and respect of employees at job. Only three respondents have replied that there is no such an affect of immediate boss attitude and behaviour on the employee’s productive attitude. 

Question No. 15:         Do you believe that managers can play their role in enhancing employee’s productive attitude?

Answer?

                                    Yes:

                                    No:

RespondentsYesNoTotal
Male25025
Female25025
Total50050

The researcher has found out that managers can play their role in creating and enhancing productive attitude among the employees through designing and effective policies and implementing policies in the organization. Managers being a leader, controller and organizer can play its effective role in creating and enhancing productive attitude among employees. All the respondents replied that managers can play their effective role in creating productive attitude.

Question No. 16:         Which factors can play their role in increasing employee’s loyalty?

                                    Select one or more from the given below list.

Answer?

                                    Pay in time

                                    Trust on Employees

                                    Proper feedback

                                    Training and courses

                                    Fulfilling promises and priority to the feedback

                                    Equal Treatment with all employees (No Discrimination basis on age, race, sex, colour, education, region etc)

                                    Trustworthy Environment

                                    Look after of employees

                                    Proper training regarding how to use new technology, proper courses coaching

                                    Leading then and controlling the employees and again necessary training

FactorsMaleFemaleTotal
Pay252247
Trust252449
Feedback252247
Trainings222345
Promises242549
Equality242549
Leading and guiding222345
Other benefits222547
    

The researcher tried his best to know that which factors can play best role in creating employee’s loyalty. After gathering data regarding this question the researcher come to know that trust, pay, promises, and other benefits can play their role and these factors must be considered by the managers while designing policy and while implementing business strategies at work place with priority. Employees have their own benefits and they have to overcome their own liabilities they need money to do shopping, and overcome other necessities of life. So in time pay, bonuses, incentives, overtime, promotions, values, trust environment are of priority issues that can play important and effective role in creating and enhancing loyalty among employees.

Question: How would you want to explain your leadership qualities?

Answer:

I have following leadership qualities

Integrity, dedication, humility, openness, magnanimity, creativity, fairness, assertiveness and I have sense of humour.

Question: What are the ethics and values of a leader?

Answer:

Values and ethics are likely to be the theoretical and confusing. You should visualize that what is going around you. As there is no pet definition of ethics but the manager as a leader is always responsible for implementation of social responsibilities in the organization and play its role for the welfare of employees for achieving organizational objectives, the manager must consider the skills and competencies of employees and educate the employees by trainings and courses arrangements. The manager must have eye on the future prospects like what is expected in the future like resource requirements, budget requirement, sales and business strategies to be implemented in the future to achieve organizational objectives. The managers must have very good attitude with the employees and should organize trust worthy environment on the work place the manager should pass on authorities to the employees to develop trust and friendly environment. The manager must be realistic and play managerial role as empathic rather than sympathise. The manager must view the performance of each employee and give feedback to the employee and according to the performance the manager must arrange training session to improve employee’s skills and competencies to achieve organizational objectives. It is the manager that agrees all the employees on organizational objectives.   

Question: What are your role and responsibilities?

Answer:

Concentrate efforts

Focus on the productive work

Motivate employees towards work

Coordination with employees and higher management to align the work

Support the employees and properly allocation of resources to the employees on right time to achieve organizational objectives and help out them in difficult situations.

Creating trusty and friendship environment

Arrangements of trainings sessions to improve their skills and knowledge for positive out comes

Chapter: 5

Conclusion and recommendations

In this chapter the researcher has described the limitations, conclusion, recommendations and future study in detail.

5.1       Conclusion and limitations

The researcher being the student has two limitations time and budget, to avoid the impact of these two limitations the researcher has selected case study tool for conducting this research. And make it sure that the data is valid and reliable. The researcher has conducted this research to fulfil the academic requirement of MBA degree. The researcher being student has bear all the expenditures from his own pocket. The researcher came to know that effective leadership style has direct relationship on the performance of employees and ultimately there is a link between the sales and growth of organization. These days many leadership style theories are in the practice in different organizations that are designed by the higher management according to the business nature and according to the objectives of organization. The researcher has concluded that there is a great relationship among the leadership style and the organizational growth. Every organization has its own specific goals and objectives. The human resource “employees” are now days are the main assets for an organization. The leadership style describes the full code of conduct that shows the behaviour of managers that they act, control, lead and organize all the resources to achieve organizational objectives. To achieve organizational objectives in the hotel industry the main focus of organization is offering the best quality of services to its clients. Because the organizational growth depends on the volume of sales and volume of sales depends on the frequency of sales and it is only due to when the clients are happy by using the products and services. When the clients perceived better quality of services they will become happy and this happiness creates the loyalty among the clients. The client’s loyalty always motivated clients to repurchase the services and also become reference groups for other clients. The loyalty depends on the quality of services and this quality of services depends on the employees. When the employees are loyal with the organization and they are well skilled especially in communication and dealing with clients then they can play their vital role in creating customer’s loyalty. Leadership style consist of rules and regulation implemented by the organizations to do business to organize, control, allocate the resources to the right people at right time to obtain organizational objectives. The behaviour of manager and the attitude and the environment created by the managers have a significant effect on the productive attitude of employees. The work place environment plays an important role in creating productive attitude among employees. So there is a link between the leadership style and organizational sale and growth by retaining old clients, capturing new clients from the market (more market share) and by handling their complaints and offering them appropriate better quality of services to bring satisfaction among clients.

The researcher has found that the employees are very happy with the manager’s behaviour and his attitude. The majority of the employees are happy with manager’s attitude only small numbers of employees are not happy with the manager’s attitude. Majority of the employees are satisfied by the work place environment like safety measures and there is no need to change the health and safety measures. Majority of the employees are well trained and skilled in dealing the clients and handling difficult situation because the supervisors helped out them. But the employees did not have sufficient authorities to solve the client’s problem at spot, and they need authority from the managers. The clients are not happy with the strict environment. So the managers can create more productive attitude by creating friendly and trusty environment at the work place. And organizational objectives can be achieved in efficient way if the employee’s have friendly environment. Trusty and friendly environment is suitable when all the workers are working like team members they should help out each other and managers must delegate authorities to the employees and managers must invite the employees to take participate in problem solving situation. There are so many benefits of friendly environment, the main benefit is that it will motivate all the employees to work hard (productivity level) in achieving organizational objectives. A significant number of respondents replied that there is no physically or morally support by their colleagues to support each other on work place. This shows that there are many gaps and the leadership style is not effective because there are so many problems that the employees are facing at the work place. The researcher has came to know that there are so many factors that organization must consider and review them periodically to make it sure that employees are happy with the policies of organization. These factors are playing an important role in creating productive attitude among the employees and this productive attitude leads them in achieving organizational objectives efficiently. When the employees are happy with the policies/ managerial behaviour then the employees will do more for the organization to achieve organizational objective by handling clients and offering better services to the clients. About 8-14% of the employees are not happy the policies regarding pay, respect, holidays, work safety, paid leaves, sick leaves, promotion, training chances, personal development, decision making involvement and morally support by the managers. As the primary research proved that these above discussed factors are playing important role in creating productive attitude among employees so the administration must take notice of these factors and they must change those policies and change leadership style in practice in order to maximize the productive attitude of employees. One thing is important that the employee’s performance is not regularly being checked by the managers and there is such a good system to gauge the performance. This factor can demoralize the hard workers and it may have bad affects on the business. All the employees are agreed to achieve organizational objectives. The objectives are very clear to all employees and all the employees know their responsibilities and tasks and they are trying their best to achieve daily task. Majority of the employees are agreed that managerial role is very important in the productive attitude at work place and can also play its role in enhancing the performance of employees. Majority and significant majority believed that there is a deep link between the productive attitude of employees and the manager’s behaviour. At the work place majority of the employees are happy but few of them are not happy with manager’s attitude. After conducting the interview with the manager, the researcher has came to know that manager is responsible for resource allocation, for forecasting of sales and forecasting of market share and growth. Manager play multi role in the organization like organizing the employees and other resources. The manager is responsible for the performance measurement manager is responsible for developing strategies. Managers play their role in controlling staff members and leading them. Managers are responsible for the proper and appropriate resource allocation at right time to the right person to achieve organizational objectives.

5.2       Recommendations

Managers must see that why the employees are not happy because each employee plays its role in obtaining organizational objectives.

 The organization must develop such policies that managers can delegate authorities to their employees to handle critical situations to create loyalty among clients.

The working environment must be friendly all the employees must share their knowledge and experience and help each other.

The organization must change their policies regarding colleague support it should be essential that colleagues must share their knowledge and support other colleagues in achieving their daily tasks. And such employees must be appreciated by the managers so that other colleagues can be encouraged by these kinds of activities.

 The organization must review the policies of salary, health and safety issues, all the other benefits of the employees and even then wage rates and paid leaves as well. These factors are very important in creating productive attitude.

The organization must review its policies related with employees and all those factors that are directly related with the employee’s benefits to change those policies because a significant figure showed that the change is essential at work place.

 The organization must check all those factors that are directly related with the promotion, career growth and personal development of an employee. The organization must change the policy for positive outcomes. The managers must play their role as empathy not sympathy. Because being sympathy the managers can only identify the problem but while being empathy behaviour the managers can provide solution as well.

5.3       Further Study

The researcher has found that there are many areas like employee’s communication skills, customer’s loyalty, complaints handling and identification of customer’s needs and wants are those areas that in future any person can take one of them into consideration then he or she will find out its impact on the revenue and growth of organization. In the future research can be conducted in customer relationship management and its effects on the sales and growth of organization can be conducted.

Chapter: 6

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Schneider, B. and Bowen, D.E. (2009) ‘Understanding customer delight and outrage’ Sloan Management Review, 1, (41) pp. 35-47

Schlesinger, L. and Heskett, J. (2001) ‘The Service-Driven Service Company’ Harvard Business Review, 69, (5) pp. 71-81

Sheth, J.N. and Parvatiyar, A. (2000) Handbook of relationship marketing: Jagdish N. Sheth, Atul Parvatiyar, editors. 1st ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications

Sosik, J.J. (2006) Leading with character: stories of valor and virtue and the principles they teach, 1st ed. USA: Information Age Publishing Inc.

Stake, R. E. (2005) The Art of Case Study Research 1st ed. London: Sage Publications

Sugandhi, R.K. (2002) Customer Relationship Management. 1st ed. New Delhi: New age

International Publishers

Zeithaml, A., Pasuraman, A. & Berry, L. (2003) Delivering Quality Service: Balancing Customer Perceptions and Expectations. 2nd ed. New York: The Free Press Division of Macmillan

  • Websites

http://www.hotelscombined.co.uk/Hotel/Botanic_Hotel_Glasgow.htm

http://www.laterooms.com/en/p1301/pv1943r/k16289408_glasgow-hotels.

http://www.botanichotel.co.uk/botanic/

http://www.laterooms.com/en/hotel-reservations/250989_botanic-hotel-glasgow.aspx

http://www.gnws.co.uk/html/botanic.htm

http://www.sunshine.co.uk/hotels/Botanic_Hotel-12367.html

http://www.botanichotel.co.uk/botanic/tariff.html

http://www.botanichotel.co.uk/botanic/contact-us.html

http://www.travelstay.com/pages/BotanicHotel.htm

http://www.easytobook.com/en/united-kingdom/glasgow/glasgow/botanic-hotel/

http://www.booking.com/hotel/gb/botanic-glasgow.en.html?aid=311076;label=slbp_botanic-glasgow

http://www.booking.com/hotel/gb/botanic-glasgow.en.html?aid=311076;label=slca_botanic-glasgow

http://www.booking.com/hotel/gb/botanic-glasgow.en.html?aid=311076;label=slhp_botanic-glasgow

  • Bibliography

Chi, C.G.Q. and Qu, H. (2008) ‘Examining the structural relationship of destination image, tourist satisfaction and destination loyalty: An integrated approach’ Tourism Management,

29, pp.624-636

Choi, T.Y. and Chu, R. (2001) ‘Determinants of hotel guest’s satisfaction and repeat patronage in the Hong Kong hotel industry’ International Journal of Hospitality Management, 20 pp.277-297

Everett, M. (2005) ‘A Higher Calling’ Sales & Marketing Management, 110, (2) pp.25-45 

Gefen, D. (2002) ‘Customer loyalty in e-commerce’ Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 1(3) pp 27-60

Getty, J.M. and Thompson, K.N. (1994) ‘The relationship between quality, satisfaction, and recommending behaviour in lodging decision’ Journal of Hospitality & Leisure Marketing, 2, (3) pp. 3-22

Helgesen, O. (2006) Are Loyal Customers profitable? Customer satisfaction, customer action loyalty and customer profitability at the individual level’ Journal of Marketing Management, 22, pp.245-266

Knutson, B. (2000) ‘Frequent travelers: making them happy and bringing them back’ The Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 29, (1) pp.83-87

Olorunniwo, F., Hsu, M.K. and Udo, G.J. (2006) ‘Service quality, customer satisfaction and behavioural intensions in the service factory’ Journal of Services Marketing, 20, (1) pp.59-72

Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V.A. and Berry, L.L. (2007) ‘SERVQUAL: A multiple-item scale for measuring consumers perceptions of service quality’ Journal of Retailing, 55, (2) pp. 74-82

Powell R.A. & Single H.M. (2006) ‘Focus groups’ International Journal of Quality in Health Care, 8, (5) pp. 499-504

Powell R.A., Single H.M. & Lloyd K.R. (2006) ‘Focus groups in mental health research: enhancing the validity of user and provider questionnaires’ International Journal of Social Psychology, 42, (3) pp. 193-206.

Richins, M. (2000) ‘Negative Word-of-mouth by dissatisfied customers: a pilot study’ Journal of Marketing, 68, (1) pp. 105-111

Su, A.Y.L. (2004) ‘Customer satisfaction measurement practice in Taiwan hotels’ International Journal of Hospitality Management, 22, (1) pp.397-408

Swartz, T.A. and Lacobucci, D. (2009), Handbook in Services Marketing and Management, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications

Appendices

Questionnaire Designed

 

Muhammad Asif Student ID ST 20016691

(Cardiff Metropolitan University)

United Kingdom

Note: Tick the appropriate answer

Total Staff Members Selected for Survey at Botanic Hotel Glass (Case Study) = 50

Male=    25

Female= 25

Question No.1:            Are you happy with the manager’s attitude?

Answer:

Yes:

No:

Question No.2:            Are you happy with the work environment in the hotel?

Answer:

                                    Yes:

No:

Question No.3:            Which kind of environment would you like at work place?

Answer:

                                    Friendly/ Trusty:

Strict:

Question No.4:            Have you ever shared your knowledge and experience with your colleagues at work place?

Answer:

                                    Yes:

                                    No:

Question No.5:            Are you happy with the company policies regarding respect, honour, salary in time, workplace safety, holidays?

Answer:

Yes:

No:

Question No.6:            Do you feel that there should be some changes are necessary at work place that can bring change in the productive attitude of employees?

Answer:

                                    Yes:

No:

Question No. 8:           Do you believe that

Question No.7:            Select one or more than one from below that in which area the change is necessary?

Answer:

Behaviour:

Pay:

Communication:

Work condition:

Fringe benefits:

Supervision:

Promotion:

Decision making Employee’s involvement:

Support (Morally, Physically):

Knowledge Sharing:

Question No.8:            Are you agreed with the company’s objective to achieve them?

Answer:

                                    Yes:

                                    No:

Question No.9:            Do you have proper skills and resources allocated by the manager to accomplish daily task?

Answer:

                                    Yes:

                                    No:

Question No.10:          Does the company check your performance and give you feedback regarding your performance (appraisal or notice regarding lacking skills or capabilities)?

Answer:

                                    Yes:

                                    No:

Question No. 11:         Is there any link between manager’s behaviour and productive attitude?

Answer?

                                    Yes:

                                    No:

Question No. 12:         Do you believe that there is a link between work place environment and employee’s loyalty?

Answer?

                                    Yes:

                                    No:

Question No. 13:         Do you believe that there is a link between manager’s/ Supervisor attitudes and behaviour on your productive attitude?

Answer?

                                    Yes:

                                    No:

Question No. 14:         Do you believe that managers can play their role in enhancing employee’s productive attitude?

Answer?

                                    Yes:

                                    No:

Question No. 15:         Which factors can play their role in increasing employee’s loyalty?

                                    Select one or more from the given below list.

Answer?

                                    Pay in time

                                    Trust on Employees

                                    Proper feedback

                                    Training and courses

                                    Fulfilling promises and priority to the feedback

                                    Equal Treatment with all employees (No Discrimination basis on age, race, sex, colour, education, region etc)

                                    Trustworthy Environment

                                    Look after of employees

                                    Proper training regarding how to use new technology, proper courses coaching

                                    Leading then and controlling the employees and again necessary training

Does effective websites with particular characteristics affect customer loyalty to retain them

  1. History

Today internet marketing is a new technology which is used in all over the world by large and small organizations to sell, buy their products, and services hiring and offering services by using new technology. Actually internet marketing now has become very popular mean of communication, even then by operating business in a country you can sell, product or services through internet on the other corner of the world if buyer or seller is there with no wastage of time and money, when wastage of time and money are there then it is meant that businessman has saved the amount in other terms. Similarly there are many features of internet marketing on a business. GlaxoSmithKline is well known multinational pharmaceutical company that is striving for life of quality for its patients and it is doing business in about 100 countries and has 96000 employees in all over the world. Pharmaceutical company making perception medicine, vaccines, and other health care medicine products, in which most famous diseases like asthma, virus control, infections, mental health, diabetes and digestive, now it has been producing cancer preventing medicines as well. Company has open relationships with NHS in all UK, company is striving for human life quality to improve and patients to feel better, and that’s why company is developing innovative products. The company is almost capturing new share of market every year 24% among worldwide which is a major portion that’s why it is leader pharmaceutical company. Round about 13000 researchers are employed by this company for research and development purpose, among them about 1300 belonged to United Kingdom, in 2009 they spent about $11 million in United Kingdom Universities to support about 260 PhD students (http://www.gsk.com/uk/about/index.htm#uk-r-and-d).

  1. Problem

Customers are everywhere in the world, now people are time saving, they want to buy and pay from their homes, sometimes they do not have time to go for shopping for shopping, for purchasing food, and many more stuff, so they require services. Internet provides this facility to visit online shopping and pay from internet, and even then this kind of marketing is more suitable for buyer and seller, company and customer. Fast communication, fast tracking, fast feedback, complaint handling this all provide companies data to make fast decisions and retain customers and capture more and more, it depends on the quality of services and quality of communication. By using computer from home, office, on way, during journey, business man can make contact with supplier, management, and distributions, similarly seller, middleman, buyer also can make contact through online facility, just by going on the web site of relevant company and choose the product or service and go through all process. In this way both customer and organization can save time and money.

Easy access

Business in all over the world

More chances to capture new customers and retaining old clients

Fast, time saving, cheaper, money saving

Research objectives

What are the characteristics of effective website?

In this objective the researcher wants to find out the characteristics of websites, the main purpose of this objective is to clear understanding about those characteristics that can play their role in the growth of organization and in achieving organizational objectives, and these characteristics are very important.

What is the impact of website creating customer loyalty?

This objective has an importance for the researcher because the researcher want to know about the influence that how the characteristics of a website can create the satisfaction and loyalty among the customer because the loyalty is helpful in achieving organizational objectives.

Which characteristics have greater influence to attract customers and create more loyalty?

There will be many characteristics that have some influence in achieving organizational objectives but the main and effective characteristics that have mostly their impact in achieving goals and objectives.

  1. Research Question

Does effective websites with particular characteristics affect customer loyalty to retain them?

  1. Review of Literature

Using internet facility attaining organizational objectives is called internet marketing (Smith & Chaffy, 2005). According to Strauss and Frost, (2005) organizations achieve their goals of marketing by using internet and other activities of marketing processes which includes all the activities of marketing, product designing, setting prices, quality, placement and promotional activities through internet. Organizations can achieve objectives like generate more revenue, attaining of competitive advantages over their competitors in the market, relations with distributors, new ideas generation of doing business in well manner, client retaining and capturing more client in the market to gain more market share by using performance of marketing (Adam et al. 2002). Researcher will use more literature review like different marketing journals, books on marketing and internet, different thesis and marketing articles on marketing performance. Researcher will readout different areas which are liken and connected to internet marketing like internet use, internet marketing, different companies that are providing internet facility of buying and purchasing and selling product to support his research (Bharadwaj, 2000). Researcher is interested in this research because internet marketing effects on sales need still more work and need positive suggestions for companies. Researcher will describe the different aspects of website on the loyalty of customers. The researcher will find out the effects of website to create more and enhancing more loyalty in customers. As two scholars have described the impact of internet services in the field of electronic commerce and especially in transactions and regarding marketing and international trade Teo and Tan, (2002) said that organizations are going to pay their focus on e-commerce related issues. Internet has a significant effect in business (Darby et al. 2003). Customers use computer to make transactions (Fillis et al. 2004). There are so many advantages of computer science in every field of life specially its importance and advantages in the field of trade have great importance and Porter, (2001) said that internet is actually a big support to business. Internet is playing big role in business transactions to carry out them (Gatticker et al. 2000). To manage customer in an effective way by creating relationship with them for long time to make profit is new idea (Goldsmith and Lafferty, 2002). Customer relationship management can be used to retain the old loyal customers for the more income and revenue to earn handsome profit and for the growth of organization and expansion of product line and range. (Samiee, 1998) described that Customer relationship management strategy is used to create loyalty in customers. This statement was also supported by the (Getty and Thompson, 1994) by saying that customer relationship management is used to create loyalty. Customer relationship management is for creating loyalty in customer the main cause of its importance is that loyalty has great influence on organization (Gefen, 2002). The researcher will first create influence of loyalty on business and then website. Each new technology whereas has its more advantages there are many disadvantages of new technology and with the passage of time those limitations can be easily removed through some amendments and alterations Siddiqui, (2003) said in the support that there are many problems related with usage on internet. But some of the scholars were agree on the effectiveness of the website design and they said that there is significantly affect of website on customer loyalty (Sheth and Sharma, 2005). With the usage of internet and launching of website mean more loyalty of customers. According to above literature it is clear that through using and launching of website, any organization has the opportunity to use effectively its customer relationship management strategies and activities in effective way and good manners, when there is effective customer relationship management strategies implemented through website then there are many opportunities to create loyalty in customers and loyalty in customer means retention and more market share capturing from market and more revenue generation and more profit. Through usage of internet company can sell products and services beyond the boundaries of country.  CRM is strategy that how to retain already customers and how to make more customers through creating loyalty, and other activities (Sheth and Sharma, 2005). Some companies have record of their clients (Morgan and Shelly, 1994). Through creating loyalty companies can retain customers (Powell and Single, 1996). Customer relationship management is only for clients, no client no customer relationship management. Companies retain, capture clients make relations with other companies (Parasuraman et al. 1988). For business success, customer’s complaints handling is important (Oliver, 1980). Companies should recognize customer’s needs, wants and their level of satisfactions and provide them those products to overcome their needs and wants up to a certain level of satisfaction (Oliver, 1997). Companies should recognize what customers wants, and create thus more loyalty (Olorunniwo et al. 2006). Employees recognize client’s issues and should help those (Caruana et al. 2000). It is very easy to deal customers at regular basis when one organization only designs a product or offers a service for one client this concept is called personalization which means special product or service for a client (Chen and Popovich, 2003). Loyalty is the trigger towards company benefits that’s why loyalty s important (Chi and Qu, 2008). Loyal customers select the organization and remained to buy products (Choi and Chu, 2001). Loyalty will consider by the researcher as important factor in this research.  Loyalty is indicating occurrence (Cronin and Taylor, 1992). To advertize products website is best tool (Dimitriades, 2006). Website develops trust on client and supplier (Faullent et al, 2008 Feagin et al. 1991). Through internet which is costly means to bring or capture customer but effective way to create loyalty (Chatterjee et al., 2002). Through website attracting new client is very costly (Feagin et al. 1991). To capture more clients, company can develop website and launch the website to attract clients and can create loyalty for purchasing and repurchasing products or services for earning profit (Flyvbjerg, 2006).

  1. Research methodology

Researcher will use conceptual model, researcher will measure characteristics of a website and exploratory research will conduct to find out the impact of website on customer loyalty. Customer will choose a case study of GlaxoSmithKline’s website to make it sure that what is the impact of website on customers loyalty? Researcher will conduct interviews to different customers and to the management and employees of company to achieve the results.

Research Instruments

Researcher will describe some features on the basis of those features researcher will be able to find out the data and after analysis and interpreting them, conclusion will possible. These features will be for the website that if these features are used during the construction or in other words if websites offer these features to customers to create loyalty then what is impact of website on customer loyalty.

Researcher will use tables and graphs for statistical analysis.

Researcher has found out those features from review of literature.

Researcher will construct table for test.

Population

Interviews will be conducted of managers, customer services officers and customers. And questionnaires will be used in the research about 150 respondents will be surveyed. 150 respondents are enough because the researcher has limited time to conduct this research. The researcher will select suitable and frequent customers. The researcher will ask first about usage of internet and online shopping. The person using online shopping will be the most suitable sample. Both of the gender male and female will be included in the sampling and ages range will be from 20 to onward till 50 years.

Sampling

The researcher will select customers randomly from all the population.

Source of Data

The researcher will visit more than 10 websites of different companies to collect data, interviews and meetings with management of pharmaceutical company and to its other employees and with customer services officers and information technology like web developer interviews will be conducted. Moreover for research purpose literature will be reviewed, books, articles, statistical reports and news papers and IT magazines will readout.

Primary and Secondary Data

Primary data will be collected through visiting websites of different companies, annual reports, meeting with manager, and employees of above said company will be arranged in order to get reliable and valid data. Questionnaires will be used as a tool, and during interviews data will be recorded will honest and secondary data will be collected through books, reading journals, e books, e journals, different statistical reports, IT journals, IT magazines etc.

Research Limitations

Researcher has time limits and funding limitations.

Actually there are two main limitations with this research project time is so limited and the budget. Being student the researcher will do all the expenses by her own pocket. And the other limitations are that due to time constraint the researcher was unable to conduct this research on a large volume of population and sample size, so the researcher decided to concentrate on only one case study. the respondent knowledge about information technology and his/her background knowledge about it and his/her experience about using of websites for purchasing.

  1. Data Presenting

The researcher will record the data with honestly in tabular form by using Microsoft excel sheet in order to make it sure that there is no any duplication chances and not data missing after recording data into tables form the researcher will use bar charts to make comparisons necessary for the interpretation and making necessary analysis and recommendations on them whereas during the analysis the researcher will use pie charts to make analysis.

Expected Findings

On the basis of research objectives researcher will find out the expected result.

Which includes some characteristics of effective website, impact of website to create customer loyalty, and which characteristic or combination of characteristics have greater affects to create and retain customers.

  1. Planning of Project

This chapter will contains the information regarding each step by step that how to research will conducted by keeping time and budget constraints by the researcher. Here in this section the researcher will describe the flow of steps involved in the research conduction that how the research was conducted by the researcher.

Cost and Resources

This project is not funded by any organization, as this research will conducted through student, so all resources will be arranged by student, student will bear all the expenditures for example, purchasing of costly statistical software and other related cost like to go here and there for collecting primary and secondary data. The researcher has made a rough idea about the cost of the project. The below table is describing the cost associated with the headings of activities, the next table will shows the time frame required to conduct the research.

Serial NumberDescriptionCost (£)
1Travelling expense150
2Data Collection Cost100
3High Tea150
4Documentation Cost100
5Miscellaneous100
 Total600

Timeframe

Gantt chart is here in this section that will completely help out to conduct the research and which is best milestone regarding time.

HistoryX       
Review LiteratureX       
Supervisor callX       
Research Methods X      
Week12345678
Design of research X      
Interviews XX     
Visits XX     
Surveys XXX    
Data Analysis   X    
Hypothesis   XX   
Supervisor call   X    
Findings   X    
Conclusion   XX   
Submitting    XX  
Supervisor call    XX  
Contingency Plan      XX

Contingency Plan

In the end of research, after presenting results and conclusion, there are two weeks to remove errors. If there are any errors and mistakes then the researcher will use these two weeks to correct the errors with the help of supervisor as this is shown in the above table.

  1. Conclusion

The impact of website on customer loyalty will be discussed, some suggestions will give after conduction research and interpreting results that how much is the impact of websites on increasing customer loyalty, and which are main features of website that trigger the customer to create loyalty and how loyalty is beneficial for company

In this section the researcher will also describes the limitations of this research project and as well as the conclusion, here in this section the researcher will also make recommendations for the organization and will suggest to the administration about the characteristics of the website designing and if the researcher will find out some errors and poor designing then the researcher will also through light on the poor sections and suggestions to the web developer that how to remove the weaknesses and how to design it in effective way. Researcher will identify customer relationship management factors which will play vital role in constructing effective and attractive website in order to create more loyalty and retaining clients and attracting more clients and creating loyalty for repurchasing.

As researcher has described some features according to review of literature that these features are very helpful to create loyalty in customers through website, so researcher will make conclusion that which one or more than one features are important to create loyalty through website.

Marketing and Sales Consultancy Services

Executive Summary

This business plan is prepared in conjunction with a new start up business i.e. The company has recently been established to cater the UK market in particular and worldwide in general. The company’s head office will be based in London, UK. The main objective of establishing the business is to tap the prevailing potential in marketing and sales consultancy market, because of an anticipated rise in this field due to recent economic climate in the country. It is expected that companies will need more specialised marketing and sales consultancy to put them again on the right path to grow and prosper. The company will be providing various marketing and sales consultancy services to small and medium sized organizations. These services will include assessing and researching the current marketing activities of the client organisations. Moreover, developing and implementing new marketing and advertisement campaigns to better promote the products and services of the companies. This will ensure more informed and better decision making by the management for developing new businesses in diverse markets. The company will offer a breadth and mix of local and international experience, across marketing, sales and service sector that is pragmatic, practical and cost effective. The company will promote itself in the market as a premier provider of these services. These services will be restricted to the above mentioned fields only.

General Company Description The company will provide high added value to its clients with the ability to create value both for clients and themselves by providing them growth opportunities and reducing their costs of doing business. The increased profitability and cost reduction for the clients will be the ultimate objective and it will be performed by the unique capability of the company. This strategy will ensure long term relations with clients and more profits for the stakeholder organisations.

Products and Services

Company will provide marketing and sales consultancy services to the customers and clients. These services will include,

  • Identifying and planning new marketing strategies
  • Marketing Strategy Development
  • Market Research
  • Planning and delivering Sales force effectiveness  training and development programmes

It is understood that the clients may need these services under very confidential environment, so company will prepare and train its staff to deliver such services swiftly, while maintaining the confidentiality of the clients.

Marketing Plan

The marketing and sales consultancy market is very competitive, but at the same it is very lucrative.  Management has planned a massive marketing and advertising campaign. In the first phase a good website will be launched with personal visits to the potential customers. Initially small and medium sized private companies in herbal and natural medicines, GSL medicines, retail, food and service sector companies will be the main targets for the company.

Management and Personnel Team

The business will be managed by the directors Mr. A, who will act as a Marketing Manager as well. His duties will to discuss the client’s requirements and planning basic and advance research based on surveys. These surveys may include face to face interviews or in the form of written questionnaires. Further Mr. A will record and analyses the reactions of the clients and customers in response to the services offered. He will to be responsible for controlling and recruiting marketing staff as well.

The second director Mr. B will act as a Sales Manager. He will liaise with other staff to determine the range of goods and services to be offered to the clients. He will further examine and analyses the sales figures and prepare proposals for marketing campaigns and promotional activities.

 The directors’ philosophy is to grow in the market by providing highly customised services to the clients with major focus on the UK small and mid-sized business organizations. The directors have anticipated a surge in sales and marketing consultancy market and the companies will be desperate to grow their business after recession. Both the directors have very close relationships with many executives in such companies and hope to get valuable business through their personal relationships and with effective advertisements.

Financial Plan

The services described above are in a great demand in the current time period. The company’s objective is to be profitable from the first year of the business. The money amounting to £50,000 will be available to spend at different variables like fixed costs, variable costs, training and development of employees, marketing and advertising.

The projected profit and loss statement for three consecutive years has been shown in the following table.

Projected Revenues and Profitability
YearRevenuesExpensesGross Profit
2013£70,000£40,000£30,000
2014£95,000£45,000£50,000
2015£120,000£50,000£70,000

Critical Essay on Photography

Table of Contents

Introduction. 2

Aim of Book. 2

Theme. 3

History of Photo Journalism.. 3

Bataille’s Photograph. 3

Krieg dem Krieg. 3

Newspapers. 3

Tabloids. 3

Vietnam.. 3

Concentration Camps. 3

Image Creators. 3

Photography. 3

References and Bibliography. 3

Introduction

One of the distinguishing features of modern life is that it supplies countless opportunities for regarding at a distance, through the medium of photography horrors taking place throughout the world. Images of atrocities have become, via the little screens of the television and the computer, something of a commonplace (http://www.themontrealreview.com/2009/Susan-Sontag-Regarding-the-Pain-of-Others.php).

Aim of Book

Her aim, it seems, is not so much to answer the above questions but to provoke us by her statements, urging us at least to think about what happens when suffering is viewed third hand; because after all, she reminds us, we see only what the photographer wanted us to see. When scenes of violence are as close as our morning papers or TV screens, Sontag’s is an important debate (http://www.guardian.co.uk/theobserver/2003/aug/03/society). This is also a book about how war itself is waged and understood in our time, replete with vivid historical examples and a variety of arguments advanced from some unexpected literary sources. Plato, Leonardo da Vinci, Edmund Burke, Wordsworth, Baudelaire, and Virginia Woolf all figure in this passionate reflection on the modern understanding of violence and atrocity. It includes as well a stinging attack on the provincialism of media pundits who denigrate the reality of war, and a political understanding of conflict, with glib talk about a new, worldwide society of spectacle just as on photography challenged how we understand the very condition of being modern, Regarding the Pain of Others will alter our thinking not only about the uses and meanings of images, but about the nature of war, the limits of sympathy, and the obligations of conscience (http://www.susansontag.com/). Susan Sontag examines the manner in which war is perceived, taking into account such factors as sex, culture and status. She contends that war imagery is open to both interpretation and manipulation. Sontag rejects the notion that war imagery will necessarily compel a repudiation of war, instead arguing that war is itself perennial. Sontag claims that a photo’s meaning is based on interpretation, perhaps formed of ignorance. Images make events seem real to viewers, even as they seem unreal in their similarity to art. Images, however, have impeccable veracity to the human mind, representing as they do the basis of empirical truth. Sontag reminds the reader, however, that images are first filtered through image takers. Sontag explains that a picture’s meaning is derived through a synthesis of artifice, context and experience (http://www.guardian.co.uk/theobserver/2003/aug/03/society).

Theme

The author is centrally focused on how people engage the pain and suffering of others. Of particular interest to Sontag, in part due to its particular interest to people in general, is the pain caused by war. Not she being from a war-torn country, Sontag, like many Americans, draws upon secondary sources for her understanding, secondary sources such as art, photography and film. Sontag uses her once-removed experience as an opportunity to examine the manner in which she, and other like herself, understands the world. She realizes that, as an American, she is privileged. Most of the privileged world has little experience with war, and thus are ill equipped to understand the pain it brings. What little they know is gleaned from the newspaper or the nightly news: discrete, disembodied images that fail to convey the harrowing truth beyond (http://www.susansontag.com/).

History of Photo Journalism

She also gives a brief history of photo journalism, from the Crimean and civil wars to the almost instantaneous transmission of images from operation Iraqi freedom. In chapters that sometimes seem to disagree with one another, she plays the devil’s advocate and views the idea of photographs of suffering from all directions. And if a war photo is posed a corpse moved for a better shot or a battle scene restaged to make it more dramatic is the effect enhanced or decreased (http://www.susansontag.com/). She considers the impact of candid photos versus those technologically manipulated. She discusses how photos, and their impact on us, change when the names of the victims are revealed. Sontag’s statements about photographs of suffering might also help us think about the function of writing and reading about others suffering. When she says “No we should be taken for granted when the subject is looking at other people’s pain” I thought of how differently a patient’s suffering might be written about by a doctor, a nurse, a lover, the patient himself, those of different cultures or beliefs. When Sontag says “The photographs are a means of making real or more real matters that the privileged and the merely safe might prefer to ignore” I thought of how we attempt to use literature to guide the healthy caregiver to a more visceral understanding of suffering. She says that when we look at a photo, we should ask ourselves what atrocities are not being shown (http://www.guardian.co.uk/theobserver/2003/aug/03/society). Compelling and profound, Susan Sontag’s essay deploys her considerable skills of cultural criticism to engage crucial questions that matter to everyone disposed to think, feel, respond, and act in ways that flow out of our sense of humanity a sense, moreover, that can only continue to develop in response to regular reflection upon such questions. This essay exemplifies how the humanities shape and sharpen habits of thought that allow us to discern a sense of purpose in life. Regarding the Pain of Others can be thought of as a continuation of the line of thought that Sontag pursued in on photography (http://www.themontrealreview.com/2009/Susan-Sontag-Regarding-the-Pain-of-Others.php). Consequently, the brilliant observations and rather flawed conclusions that mark that particular work exist here as well. Susan Sontag writes about the moral implications of photography in war and questions our perceptions which impact our actions. It’s a pleasure to read because she writes simply and clearly without jeopardizing on her well thought through arguments. I liked her thoughts on the subject of the photograph that are the photographed, what are their perception of the picture, the impact after the picture is taken, and the pain felt by their families and friends (http://www.guardian.co.uk/theobserver/2003/aug/03/society).  

Bataille’s Photograph

Bataille’s photograph is a horrifying picture of a man suffering the “death of a hundred cuts,” as he is flayed and dismembered while still alive.

Krieg dem Krieg

Krieg dem Krieg, or “War against War,” is Ernst Friedrich’s uncompromising photo album covering the destruction of World War I.

Newspapers

Newspapers are the standard of mass media, defining the baseline for taste and decorum. Due to politics and propriety, newspapers seldom print photographs of war casualties.

Tabloids

Tabloids, in accordance with the guideline “If it bleeds, it leads” are more likely to present scenes of death and destruction than their more credible counterparts.

Vietnam

Vietnam was the first nation, and war, to experience the continuous war coverage of modern journalism.

Concentration Camps

Sontag points out that the German concentration camps at the end of World War II were photographed and filmed outside the context of the camps operation, thus failing to capture their heartless efficiency.

Image Creators

Sontag separates image creators into two groups (http://www.susansontag.com/). The first group, the image makers, is unquestionably subjective. They do not reproduce reality so much as they represent it. Goya’s Disasters of War, for example, does not offer objective proof of the war crimes the artist witnessed. Rather, Goya represents, through images, an experience similar to what he has seen. The made image is filtered entirely through the eyes of its creator. The second type of image creator is the image taker, one who creates images through the use of film. The word take here refers to an image taken directly from life, suggesting that film serves as an objective reproduction of reality. The veracity of a photograph is widely regarded as above reproach, so much so that photographs are admissible as evidence in a court of law (http://www.themontrealreview.com/2009/Susan-Sontag-Regarding-the-Pain-of-Others.php).

Photography

Sontag is concerned with photography’s prurient intrusiveness, its surreal dislocation of reality it is irrelevant aestheticism. Actual photographs are of less interest to her, and are mentioned, in stern verbal paraphrase, only to be reproved for their untrustworthiness. Her earlier book concluded with a call for “an ecology of images”, censuring and perhaps censoring the visual stimuli with which a consumerist society assaults us. She remembers that resonant, impotent demand in Regarding the Pain of Others, and admits that it will never happen. No “Committee of Guardians” is going to reform news media that enjoy disaster, gloat over horror and operate on the principle that “If it bleeds, it leads”. Those media have trained us only too well, and we now, instinctively transform an intolerable, unintelligible reality into fiction. People who watched the planes slice through the World Trade Centre, or witnessed the collapse of the towers, agreed that the scene was ‘unreal’ and compared it with an action movie; the Pentagon caters to this craving for scenarios that are apocalyptic but ultimately harmless by deciding in advance on blockbusting titles for its wars, such as Operation Desert Storm. Sontag retells the familiar stories about photographs that sanitise or falsify the conflict they are supposed to be documenting. In the Crimea, Roger Fenton represented war as a “dignified all male outing”, avoiding all evidence of carnage: in the valley through which the Light Brigade charged, he supervised the placing of cannonballs on the road. In 1945, the Russian victors hoisting the Red Flag over the Reichstag in Berlin took direction from a Soviet war photographer who dreamt up this iconic moment (http://www.susansontag.com/). In our “culture of spectatorship”, have we lost the power to be shocked? The pain of others titillates us, so long as it is kept at a safe distance (http://www.guardian.co.uk/theobserver/2003/aug/03/society). The victims of famine and massacre are always, as Neville Chamberlain dismissively said of the Poles, people we do not know; when genocide recurred during the Bosnian war, we were reminded that the Balkans should not be considered part of Europe. The young Afghan refugee photographed by Steve McCurry for National Geographic became, a poster girl for atrocity; we could see her pain but not feel it. Sontag blames the eyes indiscriminate lust, claiming “the appetite for pictures showing bodies in pain is as keen, almost, as the desire for ones that show bodies naked”. Her book, unillustrated, caters to neither hunger though she does tantalisingly describe a photograph that obsessed the perverse philosopher Georges Bataille, in which a Chinese criminal, while being chopped up and slowly flayed by executioners, rolls his eyes heavenwards in transcendent bliss (http://www.themontrealreview.com/2009/Susan-Sontag-Regarding-the-Pain-of-Others.php). Words are Sontag’s antidote to images. Hence her arguments that the war photographs of Robert Capa or David Seymour belong in newspapers, where they are surrounded by words, rather than in magazines, which juxtapose them with glossy advertising images: the explanatory verbiage is a bulwark, and turns the fickle viewer into a reflective, questioning reader. People unconvinced by her contention that images can easily be conscripted as the “totems of causes”, because sentiment is more likely to crystallise around a photograph than around a verbal slogan. At the end of the book, she proposes that ‘photographs with the most solemn or heart-rending subject matter Matthew Brady’s dead soldiers from the Civil War, the walking cadavers at Buchenwald and Dachau photographed by Margaret Bourke White and Lee Miller, perhaps also Nicholas Nixon’s Aids victims should not be exhibited in galleries or museums, where like all wall hung or floor supported art they become incidental to a stroll, displayed as if they were plates on a sushi railway which we can sample or ignore as we please (http://www.susansontag.com/). The “weight and seriousness” of images like these is more aptly honoured privately in sober silence, she believes, in a book. Regarding the Pain of Others is serious enough, but hardly weighty. It is short, and by rights should be a good deal shorter: it derives from an Amnesty lecture, and labours to amplify and relentlessly repeat its original argument. Readers can find it on the inside back flap of the jacket, and it shows Sontag herself a mater dolorosa whose grieving face is framed by a sleek cascade of time defying jet black hair posed next to a wall beside the Seine near the Ile de la Cite. The photographer is her close friend, Annie Leibovitz, who specialises in the glamorous consecration of celebs for the covers of Rolling Stone and Vanity Fair. In her starchy text, Sontag says that beautifying is one classic operation of the camera, and regrets the vanity of people who are “always disappointed by a photograph that is not flattering”. By including Leibovitz’s portrait, she has exempted herself from her own rule (http://www.guardian.co.uk/theobserver/2003/aug/03/society).

References and Bibliography

http://www.guardian.co.uk/theobserver/2003/aug/03/society [Accessed on 10th March 2013]

http://www.susansontag.com/ [Accessed on 10th March 2013]

http://www.themontrealreview.com/2009/Susan-Sontag-Regarding-the-Pain-of-Others.php [Accessed on 7th March 213]

Critical Success Factor in online Marketing

To understand the variables that factor into successful online marketing.

Key objectives are:

(a) To document the various online marketing techniques those have emerged

(b) To examine the critical success factors in online marketing

(c) To contribute to marketing theory with respect to online marketing mix. 

Rationale:

Online marketing is increasingly becoming more powerful, sophisticated and measurable and it is significantly influencing firm performance (Kohler et al. 2011). Many online marketing techniques have emerged, with the key elements being; search term marketing, shopping portals and affiliate marketing (Duffy 2004; 2005). In future, more and more companies are expected to deploy these marketing methods to drive sales and profits while building brands. 
Unlike the previous online activities, the online marketing elements particularly the affiliate marketing appear to have more durable potential and it is likely to become the principle mainstream marketing strategy for e-commerce businesses in the future (Duffy 2005; Malaga 2007). An affiliate is a person or company which sends visitors or customers to a website in exchange for commissions. The affiliate industry is growing rapidly and drives billions of pounds in online sales annually and 46% of all affiliates (up from 34% in 2009) now work full-time (Econsultancy 2011).

Online sales in Europe increased dramatically, from £101 billion in 2008 to £170 billion in 2011 with UK topping and accounting for about a third of the sales. 

The online marketplace represents an opportunity for innovative and entrepreneurial companies to make money, for instance on commissions by promoting products of other companies. Successful business relationships are essential in this context. Kalyanam and McIntyre (2002) identify online marketing functions and provide taxonomy of online marketing tools. They also propose an online marketing mix but this is yet to be empirically tested and developed further. It would be essential to document the new techniques and developments and examine the critical success factors in the online marketing. 

Methods:

The research will be conducted in the UK. Following a substantial review of literature, exploratory case studies will be selected from online firms. This will constitute both advertisers/merchants and affiliates in order to get views from both sides. Questionnaires will then be developed and a survey conducted. To save time in searching for affiliates’ contacts from internet, a database with company emails will be bought. 

Outcomes:

In addition to the M. phil thesis, journal papers will be developed for instance one based on the exploratory case studies and another on survey data. More papers could be produced thereafter. Modern online marketing has unique characteristics and may require a marketing mix that is different from the traditional one. This work will build on the existing marketing mix. The work is relevant to businesses such as those interested in understanding how to turn visitors into buyers (Schlosser et al 2006), as it will inform the design and development of appropriate websites. Policy makers will also find the work useful as they get to understand better this industry which is yet to be taxed in UK.

Importance of Internal Rate of Return

The internal rate of return is basically the cash inflow that comes in the company as a result of company investment (Kenneth and Willinger, 2009). Basically the internal rate of return is the interest rate that occurs when the net amount in cash form related to the investment equal to zero. This is represented as IRR, and companies use this to find out the feasibility of a project while making an investment, this make it easy for the manager to calculate the profitability on their investment (Catherine, 2011). The internal rate of return is basically the cash inflow that comes in the company as a result of company investment (Kenneth and Willinger, 2009). Basically the internal rate of return is the interest rate that occurs when the net amount in cash form related to the investment equal to zero. This is represented as IRR, and companies use this to find out the feasibility of a project while making an investment, this make it easy for the manager to calculate the profitability on their investment (Catherine, 2011). The basic fundamental use of IRR is to understand the financial sense in advance for a company. If the IRR exceeds the cost of company’s cost of capital then the project will be feasible for company otherwise (if IRR is less than the cost of capital) the investment is useless and company may bear lose. The internal rate of return is the interest rate that makes the net present value zero (Agnes, et al., 2010). . If the IRR exceeds the cost of company’s cost of capital then the project will be feasible for company otherwise (if IRR is less than the cost of capital) the investment is useless and company may bear lose. The internal rate of return is the interest rate that makes the net present value zero (Agnes, et al., 2010).

Financial Ratio Analysis

Financial statements are the documents of any company or organisation which gives the clear picture of the historic financial statements (Preve, 2011). The financial document includes all the details and the accurate assets and the liabilities such as income, expense and the cash flow. Financial statement help to communicates with the investor and give them the detail of the company where the company stands and tell them the economic history performance and the future planning and decision making that what decision they can take (Lazaridis, 2011). Financial statement is based on the three main things which are given below

Balance sheet

Income sheet

Cash flow sheet

These are steps which help to make the financial statement and it will in the decision making for the managers.

The source of the business finance is the investor does some investment in the company this is the source of finance to the company (Garcia-Teruel, 2011). There are two kind of finance internal and external finance. When the business is well established and there growth is good and the company capital will also increase by retaining the term of profit that the business earns. This is called internal source of finance. There are external source of finance also in which if the company go for expansion and they don’t have sufficient internal source of finance then they use external source of finance (Gill, 2013).

Ratio Analysis for two Years (Published accounts as Example)

Financial ratio analysis is the selection, interpretation, of financial data along with other pertinent information, to assist in investment and financial decision making (Emery, 2011). It is also used internally to evaluate issues such as employees performance, the efficiency of operation and credit polices and externally to evaluate the potential investment and the credit worthiness of borrowers, among other things. The ratio analysis play very important role the organisation by using the ratio analysis the company know its position and where they stand. Making of financial statement balance sheet plays very important role in the organisation (Bougheas, 2009).

A statement prepared with a view to measure the exact financial position of a business on a certain date. All the assets and the liabilities of the company are clearly shown in the balance sheet. Balance sheet tells us clearly that what are their Capital, Current Assets, Current liabilities, Long term liabilities, short term liabilities, Fixed Assets (Deloof, 2010).

I have chosen the company Tesco for my assignment. Tesco is a giant in the UK super market and it is at the No.1 position. There is two years financial statement of Tesco 2010 and 2011.

There are six aspect of operating performance and financial condition and it can be calculate the financial ration (Bastos, 2012).

Liquidity Analysis Ratio

Liquidity ratio analysis are the short term debt which is rapidly converted into cash. Every organisation has those short term assets which will easily converted into cash and help the company. Here are some formulas to find the liquidity analyses ratio of Tesco (Berry, 2010).

Current Ratio = Current Assets/Current liabilities

= 11392/4250 = 2.68

= 11438/5862 = 1.95

Quick Ratio = Quick Assets/Current liabilities

= 8663/4250 = 2.03

= 8276/5862 = 1.41

Quick Assets = Current Assets-Inventories

= 11392-2729 = £8663M

= 11438-3162 = £8276M

Net working Capital Ratio = Net working Capital/Total Assets

= 7142/14681 = 0.48

= 5576/16623 = 0.33

Net working capital = Current Assets-Current Liabilities

= 11392-4250 = £7142M

=11438-5862 = £5576M

Interpretation of liquidity ratio

In year 2011 the current ratio of Tesco has remarkably fallen down at 1.95 as compare to previous year in 2010 it was 2.68. The main reason for decrease in current ratio is due to increase in current liabilities. If we see the figure in 2010 the current liabilities were £4250 and in 2011 current liabilities are £5862 which is 16 % more. If we breakup the current liabilities the main increase is trade and other payable which increased 10%.

If I analyse the quick ratio I will that quick ratio are decrease by 1.41 in 2011 as compared to year 2010 which was 2.03. There are two main reasons for this decrease in 2011. Quick assets decrease by 3%, the major decrease in cash and cash equivalent which is decrease by 10%. The second reason is current liabilities is increased by the 16%.

To find the net working capital ratio of Tesco in 2011 has fallen down at 0.33 as compare to the year 2010 which was 0.48. There are two effects in this ratio first is decrease in net working capital and the second is increase in total assets. The reason for decrease is increase in current liabilities for the net working capital. The second major reason for the increase in total assets in 2011 it is 19% more

Profitability Analysis Ratio

Profitability ratios also (refers to as profit margin ratio) compare content of income with sales. Profitability ratios give the new ideas to the company to increase their sales. This ratio is used for external Investors, Bankers and borrowers. Profitability ratio for the company can be calculated by these formulas.

Interpretation of profitability Analyses ratio

In year 2011 return of assets was slightly increase 0.057 and in year 2010 it was 0.051. There are two main factors of increase in return of assets in 2011. There is net income which was increase to 3% in 2011. The increase of 3% of net income in 2011 there are two main factors for the increase of net income. Revenue excluding the VAT increase 40% in 2011 and the second major factor cost of sales which increase to 35% in 2011. These are the main changes which make the cause to increase in net income. The average of total assets increase in 2011 about 8%

Return of equity in 2010 is 6.23 and in 2011 there is slightly increase in 6.66. There is 0.0043% increase in return of equity. Net income has increase to 3% of the Tesco. And on the other hand the average stock holder equity has increase to 0.26% in 2011.

Tesco profit margin was 0.041 in 2010 and now it is 0.043 as compared to last year it increase slightly. Net income and sales are increase in 2011 net income was increase to 3% and on the other hand sales which has a major affect on the profit margin and the sales has a sharp rise to 40% in year 2011.

In year 2010 Tesco earns per share 0.29P and now in 2011 there prices for the share has slightly increase 0.33P per share. The number of common share outstanding has 0.61%.

Activity Analysis Ratio

Activity analyses ratio use to measure how well the assets are being used in the organisation. These activity ratio help to put more investment in work for example Equipment and machinery etc. Activity ratio has four important parts.


Interpretation of activity analyses ratio

In year 2010 assets turnover is 1.24 and in 2011 it is increase to 1.30. There are two major factor of increase in ratio sales and average total assets.

If we will compare the sales of 2010 and 2011 there is a major rise of 40% in 2011 and it has a huge impact on the assets turnover. There is another reason average of total assets has been increase 8% and in the average of total assets there is 10% increase in non current assets as compare to previous year.

Tesco accounts receivable turnover in 2010 was 30.87 and there was slightly fall on 29.00 in 2011 and the accounts receivable slightly goes down by 0.0187%. There are two main reason for the accounts receivable turnover ratio one is the cost of sales which has increase of 35.68 and the another reason is.

Capital Structure Analysis Ratios

Personal Development Plan

Step 1: 

Pre-Planning, Supervisor and employee prepare independently for meeting (Freshman and Rubino, 2007). Employee completes all agency required self-assessments. Supervisor reviews performance evaluations, seeks feedback from stakeholders such as employee’s peers, subordinates, upper managers, other agency personnel who interact with the employee, and, where appropriate, external stakeholders [employees of other state and federal agencies, vendors, clients, legislators, etc (Goldberg, 201). Supervisor reviews agency mission and goals and determines which pieces of the employee’s job are critical to meeting the mission and goals.  Supervisor should also review the work unit goals and objectives and determine which parts of the employee’s job are critical to goal and objective success (Gorman, 2008).

Step 2: 

Employee/Supervisor Meeting, Discuss employee strengths, areas for improvement, interests, goals, and organizational requirements (Pollison, 2008).

Step 3: 

Prepare Individual Development Plan, Employee, in consultation with supervisor, completes plan for individual development (Kohn and Corrigan, 2007).

Step 4: 

Supervisor seeks approval of upper management [if required by Workforce Development Committee/Plan and/or organizational policies and procedures] (Sahlman, 2007).

Step 5:  

Implement Plan, Employee pursues training and development identified in plan.

Step 6: 

Evaluate Outcomes, Supervisor/employee evaluate usefulness of training and development experiences (Atkins and Murphy, 2003).

Initiate the plan and review and monitor progress against agreed objectives

Personal development planning helps identify the employee’s development goals and the strategies for achieving them by linking them to the organization’s mission and goals.  Typically, the Personal Development Plan would be developed and reviewed annually but a multi-year plan can be developed. This plan is intended to (Bass and Avolio, 2010):

Encourage the employee to take ownership of his/her organizational development

Provide an administrative mechanism for identifying and tracking development needs and plans to help meet agency critical mission and goals

Assist the agency in planning for its annual training and development requirements (Brunt, 2006).

Individual development planning benefits the organization by aligning employee training and development efforts with the mission, goals, and objectives of the agency (Contino, 2008),   supervisors develop a better understanding of their employees’ professional goals, strengths, and development needs which can result in more realistic staff and development planning.  Employees take personal responsibility and accountability for their development, acquiring or enhancing the skills they need to stay current in required skills. Clarify your manager’s expectations of your work and receive constructive performance feedback Confirm the requirements / priorities of the job for the coming year in the form of objectives (Emden, 2008).

Facilitate pay and career progression

Highlight your achievements and discuss concerns for joint problem solving 

Develop your potential and increase your job satisfaction

Discuss and agree development needs and how these might be met 

Identify and implement areas for service development/improvement

Ensure that your work priorities (Freshman and Rubino, 2007).

It is expected that your manager will have regular one to one meetings with you throughout the year to discuss your work, development and support needed, the development review is an opportunity to think about this in a structured way and as with the one-to one meetings, should be a two way process between you and your manager (Gorman, 2008).  The review is an ongoing cycle of review, planning, development and evaluation for staff against the demands of their posts taking into consideration organizational and individual needs. Employers and staff representatives, acting in partnership, will monitor decisions on pay progression to ensure that there is no discrimination or bias (Goldberg, 201).

Human Resource Plan for a work area

  1. Objective
  2. Strategy
  3. Measure of success

Human resources planning is a process that identifies current and future human resources needs for an organization to achieve its goals. Human resources planning should serve as a link between human resources management and the overall strategic plan of an organization (Goldberg, 201). Right number of people with right skills at right place at right time to implement organizational strategies in order to achieve organizational objectives, in light of the organization’s objectives, corporate and business level strategies, HRP is the process of analyzing an organization’s human resource needs and developing plans, policies, and systems to satisfy those needs,  setting human resource objectives and deciding how to meet them, Ensuring HR resource supply meets human resource demands, interfacing with strategic planning and scanning the environment, taking an inventory of the company’s current human resources, forecasting demand for human resources, forecasting the supply of HR from within the organization and in the external labor market, comparing forecasts of demand and supply, planning the actions needed to deal with anticipated shortage or overages, feeding back such information into the strategic planning process, designed to insure consistency between organization’s strategic planning process and HRP, HR programs are designed around what organizational objectives and strategies require in terms of human resource goals  (Gorman, 2008).

Production workers
Supervisors
Technical staff
Other managers

How many people need to be working and in what jobs to implement organizational strategies and attain organizational objectives, Involves forecasting HR needs based on organizational objectives, involves consideration of alternative ways of organizing jobs (job design, organizational design or staffing jobs), Involves forecasting or predicting effect of various HR programs on employee flowing into, through and out various job classifications, First determine how well existing programs are doing then forecast what additional programs or combination of programs will do, Need to know capabilities of various programs and program combinations (Pollison, 2008).

Assess the abilities and capabilities of staff to meet current and future objectives

Assessing employee skills like Leadership, Negotiation, Oral Communication, Oral Presentation, Performance Assessment, Performance Standards, Personal Motivation, Planning and Organization, Project Coordination, Responsibility, Self-Development Orientation, Setting Priorities, Strategic Direction, Tenacity, Team Building, Team Contribution, Technical Translation, Written Communication. Assessing employee skills can help you determine if your employees are in the roles best suited for them, and if any of them are ready to be promoted, or instead should be transferred to another department or position. Your employees will also benefit from an employee skill assessment, because they can use it as a learning tool to discover more about their strengths, weaknesses and goals (Kohn and Corrigan, 2007). Talk with the candidate at length to assess their ability to communicate. Ask questions and pay attention to how they answer as well as what they say. Give examples of social situations and ask how the person would handle each situation. You want to know how candidates would react in real-life situations that require good people skills (Sahlman, 2007). Ask the person to describe their social skills and describe how they have used them in the past. People with good social skills are usually good speakers and will be able to describe their abilities with ease. Assess present employees by watching them interact with others. Ask co workers to describe each other’s people skills and to criticize constructively Look at the candidates past behavior and previous jobs. People who continuously worked in social settings or as team leaders probably possess people skills. Ask for references and check with previous employers. Develop a questionnaire about people skills. Have the person rate each skill from one to five on a scale. You can tell if a person possesses such skills by their answers. Hand out a self-assessment in which the candidate rates themselves in various areas. Include sections like the following: organizational skills, coaching skills, listening skills and communication skills (Atkins and Murphy, 2003).

Identify those with whom support is required to initiate the personal development plan

Development is a process of expanding, shaping and improving skills, knowledge and interests to improve your abilities and effectiveness. This can involve developing skills and knowledge that will enable you to move ahead to the next stage in your career but also to expand your breadth of skills and knowledge so that you become more expert in your current post or even to develop a new skill outside work e.g. playing a sport (Bass and Avolio, 2010). To address a development need effectively it is necessary to (Contino, 2008): Define what you want to achieve and set yourself a goal(s). Plan the actions you need to undertake to achieve that goal manager should write a personal development plan (PDP) to outline the actions you are going to undertake to achieve your goal. Evaluate your development to assess how close you are to your goal and to examine if further action needs to be taken to achieve your goal (Brunt, 2006).

Managers struggle with three things
1. Time commitments,
2. Training and know how
3. Tools and support
Employees struggle with three things
1. Time commitments,
2. Training and know how
3. Tools and managerial support

With all the process of Personal development plan

Employee

Management

Subordinator

Colleagues

Line manager

All are very helpful while in an employee development plan.

Organization provide us all the resources like

Time

Cost

Feedback

Check and balance

Review

Etc

It varies situation to situation that who will initiate the PDP. But most time management take initiate and they feel that the performance of that employee is not satisfied, they feel some lack of skills and abilities, that is why they offer the trainings, workshops, etc. and some time employee is looking for next level position and he feel some sort of extra qualification, some sort of skills and trainings for career growth, so he initiate his own personal development plan  (Emden, 2008).