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There are many types of human resources, training, and labor relations managers and specialists (Atkins and Murphy, 2003). In a small organization, a human resources generalist may handle all aspects of human resources work, and thus require an extensive range of knowledge. The responsibilities of human resources generalists can vary widely, depending on their employer’s needs (Bass and Avolio, 2010).
Compensation, benefits, and job analysis specialists administer compensation programs for employers and may specialize in specific areas such as pensions or position classifications (Brunt, 2006). For example, job analysts, occasionally called position classifiers, collect and examine detailed information about job duties in order to prepare job descriptions. These descriptions explain the duties, training, and skills that each job requires. Familiarity with health benefits is a top priority for employee benefits managers and specialists, because of the rising cost of providing healthcare benefits to employees and retirees. In addition to health insurance and retirement coverage, many firms offer employees life and accidental death and dismemberment insurance, disability insurance, and benefits designed to meet the needs of a changing workforce, such as parental leave, long-term nursing or home care insurance, wellness programs, and flexible benefits plans (Contino, 2008). Benefits managers must keep abreast of changing Federal and State regulations and legislation that may affect employee benefits. Working with employee assistance plan managers or work-life coordinators, many benefits managers work to integrate the growing number of programs that deal with mental and physical health, such as employee assistance, obesity, and smoking cessation, into their health benefits programs (Emden, 2008).
Training and development managers and specialists create, procure, and conduct training and development programs for employees. Managers typically supervise specialists and make budget-impacting decisions in exchange for a reduced training portfolio. Increasingly, executives recognize that training offers a way of developing skills, enhancing productivity and quality of work, and building worker loyalty (Freshman and Rubino, 2007).
Most professional associations that specialize in human resources offer classes intended to enhance the skills of their members. Some organizations offer certification programs, which are signs of competence and credibility and can enhance advancement opportunities (Goldberg, 201). Many human resources, training, and labor relations managers and specialists work a standard 40 hour week (Gorman, 2008). However, longer hours might be necessary for some workers for example, labor relations managers and specialists, arbitrators, and mediators when contract agreements or dispute resolutions are being negotiated.
Process of projecting the organization’s future HR needs (demand) and how it will meet those needs (supply) under a given set of assumptions about the organization’s policies and the environmental conditions in which it operates (Kohn and Corrigan, 2007). Assess its collective capabilities and then compare this with what capabilities are required to achieve its objectives. Agreeing real and effective team ground rules, Assessing team culture and required behavior changes, Identifying Critical Team Behavior Changes (Pollison, 2008). Effective team member personal co-operation strategies: Natures most effective co-operation strategy, most team members don’t have a practical technique for what they do when another team member lets them down. ‘Win – win’ is an outcome not an effective collaboration strategy (Sahlman, 2007).
“The way a team decides to decide is one of the most important decisions it makes”, though fashion occasionally underscores one or another of these approaches, there is no right or wrong way to decide an issue. The important thing is that the team decides in advance, what decision-making method will be used. No surprises. If members are apprised of the process, even autocratic methods acquire the consent and blessing of all (Atkins and Murphy, 2003).
To find if real collaboration opportunities exist within a potential network, Motivate the network Companies to consider collaborative networks, Create new potential channel partners for the companies (Bass and Avolio, 2010). Beliefs are what make the difference between good and “high performance” I suggest the seven hidden beliefs of high performing teams are: Clear and Public Accountability, Trusted Competency, Give and Take, Total Transparency, Shared Glory, Meaningful Mission Value, Outcome Optimism (Brunt, 2006).
How to avoid nasty surprises in supporting virtual teams
Recommender Teams are often part-time; great for reviewing work but can lack a “team engine” for getting detailed work done (Contino, 2008). Managing Teams are often staffed with senior executives who have serious time management challenges and are unlikely to engage with traditional team communication and meeting approaches. Doer teams are great for doing things but their networks may be limited to their own functional areas which can blind them to some innovation and cross-functional opportunities. Instantly discover a person main worry about an upcoming change by how they speak just five words: “We can’t do that here” (Emden, 2008). I confess I never got round to testing it properly but it sounded intriguing so I pass it on – “buyer beware” (Freshman and Rubino, 2007).
isn’t what it used to be. You’ve got big data. You’ve got artificial
intelligence. You’ve got GDPR and agile workflows. All which ladder up to the
holy grail of creating an ever better customer experience. If you want to
compete in this rapid digital world, you need to make your customers happy.
I will get you started with nine of the most exciting trends developing in the world of marketing in 2019. Improve your business outlook by taking advantage of these transformations today and stay competitive by setting the conversation as the leaders of tomorrow.
Trend 1 Marketer Emergence of the tech savvy martecheter
As reddit founder Alexis Ohanian recently stated: “Programming is modern day literacy.” To go one step further, programming is modern-day career currency, even for marketers. Historically, the greatest advantages for marketers have been budget, tools and talent in that order. However, now that both customer expectations and marketing innovation are rapidly growing, the model is flipped on its head. Leading marketing programs are investing to level up their talent, which is key to maintaining the best customer experiences and marketing technologies. Single-skilled marketers can’t analyze oceans of data created by the widening range of customer touch points while also developing captivating creative, nor can they afford the constant developer resources needed to implement cutting-edge marketing tech stacks. In short, there is a skills gap between corporate and digital-native marketers, and it’s pretty big. In a General Assembly marketing assessment, for example, digital-native marketers outscored corporate marketers by 73 percent. Bottom line? Today, the greatest marketing advantage is technical marketing talent the martecheter. Not only do individuals need to be more skilled, but the traditional team structures also need an upgrade. Award-winning marketing structures are already merging design, data, engineering, product and marketing teams into a variety of new structures, in addition to customer experience and sales teams. It’s this operational nimbleness combined with cross disciplinary marketers that can support a growing ecosystem of purpose-built marketing tools to match the uniqueness of every business model and customer base.
Trend 2 Director of marketing data becomes the hottest new role
Look for smart organizations in 2019 to create a dedicated marketing role, such as director of marketing data, to establish and drive the human and machine or system connections across their company. In addition to working with technology vendors and internal teams on data integration, this new role will create processes, rules and procedures to ensure that critical data is collected and integrated into a customer data platform (CDP). Since the beginning of direct and database marketing, data has been foundation for successful marketers, enabling advanced customer segmentation, deep personalization and relevant messaging to customers and prospects. The growth of AI-based marketing tools, however, has taken data management and data integration to a level of mission-critical stature for marketing organizations. In fact, 61 percent of company executives surveyed by MemSQL indicated that machine learning and AI are their companies’ most significant data initiative for 2019.
Data integration and marketing data architects will emerge as new and vital roles in marketing organizations as artificial intelligence and machine learning-based marketing tools analyze data and customer behavior, make recommendations and predictions, and get smarter based on the data and information fed into them. In combination with these new roles, marketers will demand solutions that are open and easy to integrate through APIs and pre-built connectors and that are increasingly delivered as micro services functionality that is decoupled and easy for marketing organizations to plug and play home grown and competing solutions. Those companies where marketing struggles to partner with IT, customer support and e-commerce and to integrate relevant data across channels, functions and systems will essentially be limiting their AI marketing systems from making accurate or reliable decisions and recommendations.
Trend 3 AI and machine learning make hyper personalization a reality
The promise of one to one marketing has been around
for two decades, and brands still send consumers an overwhelming amount of
marketing messages that are irrelevant, generic or only mildly segmented or
personalized. In some respects, the proliferation of data and compartmentalized
marketing stacks has made the goal of deep personalization both easier to
visualize and more difficult to implement. The challenges in many cases are the marketers
themselves and the limits of human capabilities, time and resources. While 94
percent of companies agree that personalization is critical to their current
and future success, almost half say that IT roadblocks (47 percent) and legacy
technology (46 percent) are major barriers to their personalization
Enter AI and machine
learning based marketing tools that are changing the nature of how marketers
make decisions and deploy campaigns. While humans still are in the driver’s
seat with respect to strategy and creative, machines can analyse, process and
deliver personalized content at a massive scale. A common inhibitor to deeper personalization
for most marketers is creating multiple versions of content and then
determining the right combinations at the right time for thousands or millions
of customers. Growing numbers of AI-based systems, however, can process
marketers’ specific rules and directions. These systems can then create and
deliver individualized content on the fly to each recipient.
This hyper-personalization is increasingly being based on the predicted behaviour of the individual rather than conforming to a statically defined segment. AI-based systems make personalization easier for marketers by learning through each interaction and delivering the right content in the context of the customer’s previous interactions with the brand. What might this look like? A marketer will receive an SMS alert from a marketing automation tool notifying him or her that a sizable number of customers is predicted to not renew their memberships in the next 90 days. The marketer will then produce multichannel content and campaigns that will be personalized by AI-powered tools with specific offers and content those are optimized in real time across each channel the customer engages in. Finally, look for 2019 to be the year when testing from after-the-fact A/B and multivariate transforms to more predictive-based and combined models with rules that optimize content and offers in real time.
Trend 4 Digital marketing agencies transform into consulgencies
Is the traditional digital
marketing agency dead? Not likely in the near term, but there is a train
roaring down the tracks driven by the overwhelming amount of technology, data,
artificial intelligence and systems integration needs that is transforming
traditional agencies into consulgencies. For the first time, four
consultancies cracked Ad Age’s 2017
ranking of the 10 largest agency companies in the world. With
combined revenue of $13.2 billion, the marketing services units of Accenture,
PwC, IBM and Deloitte sit just below WPP, Omnicom, Publicis Groupe, Interpublic
and Dentsu. What is common across many of these newer digital agencies is a
consulting and solutions mindset often combined with deep focus on
While the traditional, large Madison Avenue agencies and holding companies are clearly feeling some heat from these large consulting-based agencies, the trend is also starting to reshape the landscape for smaller and mid-sized agencies. Brands increasingly look to their marketing agencies to source and build new solutions, optimize utilization of existing marketing technologies and help integrate data and disparate technology systems. Some agencies may find success through a niche approach doubling down on being deep experts on a channel like email marketing or TV spots but most will instead increasingly build out deep expertise and capabilities in artificial intelligence, data integration, customer experience analytics, mobile apps, custom solution development and more. And beyond being equally adept in creative, strategy and technology, these consulgencies will be measured and compensated based on results, not just time and projects.
Trend 5 GDPR helps marketers tighten up data hygiene and build more customer trust
As GDPR ages past its first year, with potential fines up to $9.3 billion hitting the likes of Google, Facebook and Instagram thus far, the rights of consumers and operating dynamics of businesses have shifted, adding complexity to an already challenging business environment. Furthermore, the introduction of new data privacy regulations in California becoming law in 2020 and other states looking to adopt similar regulation, marketers will need to reassess their marketing strategies and tactics. The key question is: How will this new regulation which essentially gives consumers greater transparency and control over their data change the way companies market? Contrary to many marketers’ expectations, the effect can help rather than hinder. A recent study from IBM reveals that nearly 60 percent of organizations surveyed see GDPR as an opportunity to improve privacy, security, data management or as a catalyst for new business models, rather than simply a compliance issue or impediment. With the potential for more states to follow and US federal legislation potentially covering the entire country, marketers will need to leverage this opportunity to establish trust with their target audience, build their brand with authenticity and develop deeper customer loyalty. Moreover, GDPR and other privacy regulations force marketers to focus their attention on improving data hygiene processes, leading to better targeting and higher quality interactions. To support this point, take a look at IBM’s recent Marketing Benchmark Report, highlighting marketers in countries with stricter privacy legislation outperforming countries with less regulation. For example, marketers in Canada have posted the highest email mean and median open rates for several years after preparing for the strict Canadian anti-spam rules (CASL) regulations that were announced in 2014 and which went into effect in 2017. Canada had significantly outperformed all other geographic regions with a mean of 38.5 percent and top quartile median unique open rate of 59.8 percent. The end game will be to transcend a business’s day-to-day transactions and transform the relationship between customer and business with an exchange of secured and trusted data that allows for deeper personalization of content from marketers to buyers and vice versa. Companies ignoring this new consumer world and the many benefits that follow will be left behind with cost penalties that will hurt their bottom lines as well as the opportunity to take customer-centric approaches to marketing to the next level.
transformations accelerate and demand for exceptional customer experiences
grows, marketers and CX professionals are faced with the new realities of
thinking, working and collaboration to support their businesses. More and more
marketing teams are adopting agile frameworks as part of their transformations.
They must prioritize their work by understanding which problems they’re looking
to solve and why, while they define which outcomes need to be achieved and
measured within a given sprint.
Scott Brinker writes
in his book Hacking Marketing, “Agile marketing, at its heart, is about
giving individual marketers and small marketing teams greater ownership of
their work and significant latitude in how they achieve their goal. It operates
on trust and transparency, more than command and control.” This aligned with AgileSherpas’ first annual state of agile
marketing report, claiming that approximately 36.7 percent of marketing teams
are practicing agile marketing to allow them to quickly pivot marketing priorities,
deliver higher quality work and increase productivity to accelerate delivery to
market. Other studies illustrate the same
trends in which marketers are looking to implement agile marketing within their
team in the next 12 months and even blend hybrid
approaches to their business dynamics and environment. Take a look at IBM’s own marketing
transformation. In the end, it’s all
about the benefits, and these are some core reasons why agile marketing
adoption will continue to accelerate into 2019 and beyond:
1. Greater ability to
shift gears and manage changing priorities
2. Tighter business
alignment and objectives
3. Increased delivery
speed and time to market
4. Improved team
morale and team productivity
Higher output in the quality of work
Organizations driven by culture change and agile mindsets have a first-mover advantage, especially where AI-powered marketing technology is enabling the right sets of tools to align and measure the proper objectives and metrics. Moreover, with the right mix of agile marketing approaches and the proper Martech platforms, marketers have the power to push and pull the right levers to determine failure or success and how they need to adjust course to propel their business with a common purpose. As they say, iterate and iterate practice makes perfect to do your best work fast.
Trend 7 MarTech + AdTech finally together = the Holy Grail of Marketing
The convergence of MarTech and AdTech has been discussed for many years, yet many brands still fail to achieve it. Technology stack are often too deep enterprise brands use on average more than 90 marketing tools and too costly to integrate or migrate. Data connectivity and the ability to power it with AI to gain a real-time understanding of customers and ad spend optimization will be the driving forces in the need to converge MarTech and AdTech. AI powered ad bidding, with industry enriched data, will be essential in reducing cost per acquisition across industries. The AI infused bid optimization promises to improve yield in the ad bidding process by not only ingesting vast amounts of data, but also rewriting its model with every bid continuously learning and assigning values in real time, evolving across campaigns. With more data and signal points, AI enables brands to delight customers with personalized offers across channels where and when it matters most to them. Having a fully connected and open MarTech and AdTech ecosystem will be the newest must have technology capability of 2019. This agile ecosystem enables markets to continuously examine the impact of their media spend and rate of return achieved. By 2020, advertisers in the US will pro grammatically execute nearly $69 billion on US digital display ads, representing more than 86 percent of all digital display ads served. By integrating MarTech and AdTech technologies today, marketers will be better prepared to lean into the benefits of programmatic ad spend to come.
Trend 8 Customer centricity will drive constant transformation
Customer expectations are at an
all-time high. Driven by the changing dynamics and buying behaviors with
customers and markets alike, marketing professionals are going through a
transformation in how they connect, interact and personalize with their
audiences. No longer are marketing professionals just focused on the
traditional funnel, which is designed to attract new customers and markets with
a single transaction. Marketing organizations are now discovering a longer and
deeper customer cycle that centers around the customer experience (CX) and
lifetime value by strengthening and retaining existing relationships. A recent IDC FutureScape study predicts that by 2022,
35 percent of CX-focused organizations will adopt commerce everywhere business
models and generate 50 percent of their revenue through contextual discovery
experiences. As this trend becomes a realization, marketing teams must rethink
their overall customer experience approach, with an integrated and cohesive
strategic vision plan to empower their brands rather than two distinct customer
and marketing strategies as independent playbooks.
Marketing and CX transformations
are risky and involve a considerable amount of time and patience to fully
utilize their potential, but the rewards are indisputable. The IDC FutureScape
study also predicts that by 2019, the number of tech-centric CMOs with a formal
role in company-wide customer experience leadership will have doubled to 12
To develop a powerful customer
experience, marketing transformation must include AI-powered marketing platforms to:
1. Digest their own customer data
silos with other data sets, carefully pull the proper insights and apply them to their decisions
2. Understand and deep-dive into
their customer base to learn which historical and real-time behaviors are
3. Test, pilot and iterate across various marketing platforms, content and programs to differentiate their brand in the market with purpose.
Trend 9 In the emotion economy, purpose creates loyalty, what have you done for others lately?
Today’s marketers are shifting from the attention economy to the emotion economy. It isn’t simply enough to catch the eyes of customers; it’s also important to deliver happiness and win their hearts. Buying is often an emotional decision, and customer experiences have to trigger the right emotions to get them to buy and keep buying. When customers are engaged emotionally, they are much more compelled to take the actions that drive business. If a brand wants to sustain that growth, it must pull these emotional triggers again and again. One of the most telling markers of the emotion economy is the purpose-driven brand. More than ever, consumers care about a holistic relationship with brands and businesses, especially younger consumers. They’re more likely to engage with brands that are authentic, meaning the brand promises a strong point of view and delivers on it. The latest quintessential case is Nike’s partnership with NFL quarterback Colin Kaepernick, the star who knelt during the National Anthem in protest of police brutality. The action spurred thousands of people to film themselves burning Nike apparel. At the same time, by featuring Kaepernick in its ad campaign, Nike appealed to the social justice mindset of a new generation of consumers and ultimately generated around $43 million. While purging its older demographic, Nike has now ignited brand loyalty from consumers under the age of 25.
This isn’t a
situation unique to Nike. The new consumers are conscious of a brand’s social
impact and policies. How many people were willing to delete Uber during the
peak of its fiascos? How much of Tesla’s brand loyalty is influenced by its
mission to reduce carbon footprints? And, of course, how has online behaviour
changed in the last 12 months during the ongoing Facebook privacy and transparency
investigation? Social impact isn’t just a fluffy armchair talking point
anymore; it’s a strong purchase consideration value proposition for consumers.
To differentiate in 2019 is to deliver a strong social point of view. Even
before the latest round of new privacy protection legislation, the younger
demographic was already the most competitive and expensive market segment. Now,
it’s clear the way to prepare for long term success is to build a
purpose-driven brand and develop a world class marketing program.
Today,service organizations are shifting their focus from “transactional
exchange” to “relational exchange” for developing mutually satisfying
relationship with customers. Extended relationships are reported to have a
significant impact on transaction cost and profitability, and customer lifetime
value. Serving the customers, in true sense, is the need of the hour as the
customer was, is and will remain the central focus of all organizational
activities. The hotel industry, especially the luxury segment hotels needs to
be purely customer-centric and focus on the customer needs and duly fulfill
Customers will not blindly accept poor service
quality from a luxury hotel. They expect high quality of service in return for
the money, they spend in luxury hotels. This paper is an attempt to explain the
dark side of CRM in the luxury segment of the hotel industry with the help of
the ‘Gap Model’ referred to in literature which suggests that gaps in service
occur at various instances. The author explains that the gap CRM is a useful
tool to explain the dark side partly. There is more to the dark side like
privacy issues, unwillingness of customers to build a relationship with the
service provider, changing tastes and preferences of the customer. Hotel
Company has been chosen as a single case study and the research questions have
been devised, addresses the industry at large, using a classic example of
superior service quality to the customers. Some simple measures to reduce the
dark side have been mentioned, which addresses the third and last research
The project would contribute as a useful guide for luxury hotels, provide them some valuable information on what the customer expectations are and if they are duly met then service gaps shall not occur. This research shall provide scope for luxury hotels to improve their overall service quality and strengthen their position in the industry. The relevant existing theory has been reviewed and the subject has been explored, using the ‘Gap CRM’ (Parasuraman et al 1998) mainly. Based on the research findings and analysis, recommendation has been given to reduce the dark side at this hotel and luxury hotels in general.
Customer relationship management is
responsible to design and implement effective business strategies in a business
to create and maintain profitable and long term relationships with its clients
by retaining and capturing some new clients from the target market to offer
them better quality of services (Sugandhi,
2002). With the passage of time there is a change in
technology and due to change in technology there is significant change in the
client’s needs and wants. There is a significant competition in the market now days. In the
market many service providers and products manufacturers are providing same
products and services to the clients. With latest technology and education now
clients have awareness about the features, advantages and benefits. Clients
need high quality at reasonable price with more advantages.
According to Gronroos, (2001)
customer relationship management must consider all those factors that can
create effective CRM strategies to achieve organizational objective. Those
factors may include employee’s communicational skills, honour the promises made
with customer at the time of offering, employee’s attitude, and better quality
of services to the customers and trusty environment.
According to Sugandhi, (2002) stated
that better quality of services are always appreciated by the clients and
better quality of services has main importance with the client’s point of view.
There is a deep link between the customer’s retention and services provided to
According to Chen and Popovich,
(2003) has been stated that every client has different problems and need
satisfaction according to their problem solution, service providers do not
trying to understand the situation and importance of client’s expectations.
They can bring satisfaction through service quality. Services providers must
give priority to recognize the client’s expectations then it will easy for them
to offer best and excellent services at cheap prices. The service relationship
management department can create the loyalty among the clients through
effective business strategies. Clients are very important for all the
businesses because when there are no clients then there is no business. Wilson,
(1991) stated that clients become angry when the customers can not offered best
quality of services, and when the clients are not happy with the offered
services then there is no loyalty and satisfaction among the clients. But the
companies have the way and an option to bring happiness among its clients by
handling their complaints properly with proper solution through skilled
Buttle, (2005) suggested that lack
of communication skills among employees is a major cause of clients loosing
whereas the strong communicational expertise can hold the clients with the
organization and can increase the percentage of market share. Looy et al. (2003) stated that customer
relationship management can recognize the peer quality of services through some
measures and can improve the quality of services through effective measures and
There is a significant difference
between the client’s expectations and the perceived features of the products
and services and there is more than one difference and these differences can be
reduced significantly by having effective business policies designed by the CRM
department and implemented effectively (Parasuraman et al. 1985).
The researcher has found out all
those drawbacks of CRM and those factors that can reduce those factors to offer
best quality of services to the clients for creating loyalty and satisfaction
among the clients. According to Chen and Popovich, (2003) business
organizations are trying to maintain the long term relationship with their
client through offering them better quality of services. The researcher came to
know that CRM can design and implement those effective strategies that can
bring loyalty through satisfaction among the clients so that a profitable and
long term relationship established between the clients and organization to earn
more revenue for the growth of organization. The researcher has selected
Marriot Hotel as case study that is already offering better quality of services
to its clients and have proper CRM department in operation. The researcher
knows that there is a link between the customer loyalty and the satisfaction
and this becomes the cause of organizational growth. The customer relationship
management can create the loyalty and satisfaction among the clients to achieve
organizational objectives efficiently and effectively.
The researcher has following
objectives of this research conducting. Actually the researcher has many
objectives to conduct this research to find out the influence of effective CRM
strategies in hotel industry. Customer relationship management is actually
responsible in every organization to integrate all the business operational
activities and all other departments like marketing department, research and
development department, manufacturing and services departments. The main focus
of CRM is to identify the actual needs of clients ‘Expectations’ through proper
way and then delivering the services in such a way to satisfy them as per their
expectations in order to achieve organizational objectives. In this research
the researcher is interested to know the influence/ role of CRM and its
effective strategies in achieving organizational objectives efficiently.
Is there any difference between the expectations and offered quality of
services to the clients?
The researcher had this objective
to know about the factors that creates the differences between the client
expectation about the quality and the quality the offered by the employees when
they offered these services. The researcher was also interested in this
objective to know that how the employees can identify the expectations of
clients. And the employees must have some kind of skills to handle the
complaints of clients. Here the researcher is interested to know all those
factors that can minimize the differences that are main hindrance in the way of
client’s satisfaction. The researcher wants to know the skills and necessary
trainings that are helpful for an employee in recognising their needs and wants
and after identifying these expectations they must provide the quality of
services as per their needs and requirements in order to create loyalty to
achieve organizational objectives.
What are the main causes of these differences?
The researcher was interested in
this objective because the researcher wants to find out the main factors that
play their role in creating these differences, and how the CRM department can
minimize these causes by considering them in designing new policies to minimize
these differences. The researcher is interested in identifying those factors
that can be helpful in identifying the expectations because the differences
creates due to improper knowledge in identifying the actual needs and wants and
improper identifying the actual nature of client’s problem.
Is there any disadvantage of CRM in hotel industry?
Here the researcher want to know
the disadvantages of CRM department and the researcher want to know the main
causes of these disadvantages and their affects on the organization. The
researcher was interested that if there are some disadvantages then how to
remove because the main advantages of CRM are to maintain the relationship
between the clients and the organization to maximize the profit to expand the
business. The researcher want to know how these disadvantages will be removed
by improving the policies and taking remedial measures in recent strategies.
These disadvantages may be due to input data of other departments like research
and development reports either lack of proper marketing strategies.
How these differences and disadvantages can be removed?
The researcher was interested to
reduce the disadvantages and differences to create the loyalty and satisfaction
level among the clients. The researcher will make necessary and positive
suggestions and necessary recommendations for the effectively implementation of
improved policies to create long term relationship among clients for earning
profit. The research is also interested in reducing those gaps that are the
main hindrance in the way of identifying the expectations of the clients and
gap created due to improper communication channels from one department to other
department. All other departments are interconnected with each other in
delivering excellent services to the clients from recognizing to
How the effective strategies can be implemented by CRM in hotel
The researcher was interested in
this objective to implement the improved business policies by the CRM in hotel
industry. The researcher was interested to know about the improvements in the
current policies to obtain organizational objectives.
1.3 Introduction of the Organization
Marriott hotel is the
subsidiary of world renounced company ‘Marriot International’ that has been
started its first hotel business in USA in 1926, this company has about 3500
properties in round about 80 countries of the world (http://www.marriott.co.uk/Channels/globalSites/aboutMarriott.mi?country=UK). There are different brand names of
this company and all these brands are world famous like ‘The Ritz Carlton’ the
company is providing world best quality of privacy and services to its clients
and more than 80 hotels are in operation successfully, the staff is well
educated and well equipped to handle clients and offering them dinning, and
room services at their best efforts to create loyalty to satisfying them
according to their needs and wants (http://www.marriott.co.uk/hotel-brands.mi). Same Services Company is providing
at ‘JW Marriott’ hotel but more luxury facilities by considering client’s
privacy as their first priorities. Similarly ‘Autograph collections’ ‘AC
Hotels’ ‘Country Yard Marriot’ ‘Spring Hill Marriot’ ‘Marriot Vacation Club’
and ‘Grand Residences Marriot’ these are kind of businesses are owned by the
‘Marriot International’ (http://www.marriott.co.uk/hotel-brands.mi). The company has
owned the responsibility to provide high level of services to its valuable
clients. The company has equipped itself with latest technological facilities
like electronic bookings and payment option from all over the world. The
company has been using prompt and latest technologies to deliver latest information
regarding booking, discounts, pricing, features, values, benefits and
advantages to its potential clients in the market. The company has already CRM
department in operation in order to retain its old clients by offering then
excellent and value added services and in order to capture new clients from
target market (http://www.marriott.co.uk/marriott/privacy-uk.mi). The company is social
responsible for the welfare of citizens by providing equitable services to
protect the surroundings and its stake holders. The company believes in
providing the appropriate services to its clients as per their priorities and
expectations to bring happiness among the clients. Customer relationship
management department at Marriot Hotel is responsible to design and implement
effective business strategies to build long term relationship with its clients
to generate more revenue by creating loyalty among the clients. The Marriot
hotel is well famous hotel in United Kingdom which is situated in the London
city near Park Lane London. The hotel is offering its best services to the
clients. There are many branches of this hotel are working in the United
Kingdom. All the rooms are decorated very well with bedrooms, lighting, side
table, curtains, chairs, Television, telephone and all other facilities are
also available. At Marriot hotel the staff is well trained and skilled having
good manners and well attitude and behaviour to serve the travellers. The staff
is offering best quality of services to the customers to create loyalty among
clients. This hotel is providing excellent services in the market to capture
new and retaining old clients as well. The staff always welcomed warmly to the
clients in the friendly and neat and clean environment. This branch of hotel is
situated near the tube station and bus station and free car parking is also
available to the clients where they can park their cars, jeeps free of cost. As
the researcher has already mentioned that the hotel has equipped itself with
new and latest technologies to facilitate its clients with electronic booking
system and telephonic booking without the advance charges. The hotel has
offered different discount packages to the tourists, students and family packages
are also the part of marketing strategies. The hotel staff always tried at its
best level to honour all the promises made at the time of advertisement.
Official meetings, weeding ceremonies and other family functions and friends
parties are also managed by the hotel management at different charges. Many
national and local festivals and events are also celebrated at Marriot hotel
and different discount packages are also offered to clients. There are shopping
markets available for the clients like booking airline tickets alcohols and a
variety of delicious dishes are also available inside the hotel. The employees
at Marriot hotel are trained on regular intervals to equip them with
interpersonal skills to handle and serve the clients.
According to Body and Limayem, (2004) the customer relationship
management is responsible for creating profitable and long term relationship
among the clients of an organization, the customer relationship management is
the only responsible for making such policies that must be helpful in holding
customers through proper solution of their problems and making new clients
through effective techniques specially through better qualities of products new
advance features and benefits over the competitors in the market for earning
profits and growth.
2.1 Quality of Services
Gronroos, (2001) has been stated that organizational business growth
depends on the quality of services this means that if the qualities of services
are high then the growth will be smooth and organizational objectives will be
achieved easily and vice versa. Organizations can measure the quality of
services easily. First of all the organizations must have kills to identify the
expectations of customers than as per their demand the organizations must
design their products and services and through effectives policies the
companies can recognize the problem of customers in the market. The quality of
services have directly an effect on the level of customer’s satisfaction and
customers are the best source of recognizing the level of satisfaction and
improvements in the quality of services (Caruana et al. (2000). Repurchasing of services or products depends on the
level of satisfaction of client and loyalty always comes through effective and
quality of services (Kandampully & Suhartanto, 2000). Poor quality of
product and services always loose the clients and due to poor quality of
services, client become discourage and will never come back again to hire
services or purchasing services.
Choi and Chu, (2001) both have
been described the importance of technology and procedures in creating the
quality in products and services to bring loyalty among the clients by creating
best image of company. There is a significant impact of modern technology and
latest procedures on the product’s design, features of products, brand image,
distribution and promotional activities can be affected and all these factors
can improve the brand image in the mind of clients Gronroos,
(2000). Quality of
products and services are related with the commitments and promises made by the
companies at the time of advertisement and delivery of services (Sheth and Parvatiyar, 2001). In the hotel industry privacy, room
decoration, quality of services, prompt reply, quick response and respect are
the factors that bring happiness among the clients (Choi and Chu, 2001). Loyalty is always comes
through satisfaction level of clients and revenue generation is directly
related with quality of services provided to the customers to overcome their
needs and wants well in time, profit depends on revenue generation and this
depends on frequency of sales and it depends on satisfaction and satisfaction
depends on the services (Yeung et al.
2.2 Customer’s Complaints Handling
Buttle, (2008) suggested that it is necessary for the services
providers to consider the complaints registered by angry clients against poor
quality of services or low quality of services, because the poor quality of
services always create bad image of company in the mind of clients.
Complaints always provide a chance to the organizations to review
their processes and ways to offer the services, and organizations can improve
their services and products by recognizing their weak areas and their strengths
and can successfully find out the opportunities (Wilson, 2001). About eighty
percent of the clients avoid making complaints against bad services and only
remaining twenty percent people make complaints about low quality of services
There are many methods to check or measure the loyalty of clients,
the companies can check the loyalty of clients through many methods and on the
basis of results these companies can improve their services quality (Oliver,
2007). While designing the marketing strategies and activities from product
designing to pricing, distribution and promotion all those factors that can
create the loyalty are also considered and unnecessary information is never
conveyed to the potential customers (Barsky, 2002).
When the customers register the complaints against wrong services
and poor quality of services than the business organizations may have a chance
to find out those root causes of low level services and hence in this way they
can be able to retain those angry clients by providing those better services
and solution to their problems (Buttle, 2005). All the business companies have
their first and last objectives to earn good profit and on the behalf of profit
margins the companies can grow and can expand their businesses. The companies can
earn profit only in one way, when the service provider companies will become
successful in delivering best quality of services and there is no gap or
difference in the customer’s expectations and delivered services qualities then
there will be a chance to earn more revenue. Similarly when organizations are
striving for earning more revenue through different services and products and
every client has its own expectations according to their needs and wants, but
the actual needs and wants are same, clients needs same solution but they
choose the products to overcome their needs and difference may occur due to
their own wrong selection so they must also make it sure about the services or
products that it will fulfill their need or not. So the clients need exact
information about product or services features, benefits and advantages over
the competitors. In this way the company can reduce the chance of bad image
creating in the mind of customers (McAlexander et al. 2004). The CRM can recognize and can train the employees in
equipping them with necessary skills and competencies to handle clients in well
manner (Looy et al. 2003). But the
Wilson, (2001) has described that the customers do not know exactly the
procedure of complaints registration even then they do not know the right
person to whom they should contact in any problem. These people believes that
it is only wasting of time to make complaints because they do not sure that the
administration will take care of them and will provide them suitable solution.
Purchasing and frequency of purchasing is directly related with the
loyalty (Cronin and Taylor, 1994).
The researcher came to know that the loyalty is related with the
satisfaction level and satisfaction is related with the best quality of
services and the services can be effectively delivered by the skilled employees
if the CRM equipped with suitable trainings to its employees at right time and
administration delegate the necessary authorities to its employees. The CRM can
identify the expected quality of services through implementing policies and
strategies into operations effectively. And this way the organization can
achieve its goals and objectives.
2.3 Role of CRM
Customer relationship management is responsible for creating
effective policies for the business organizations to operate successfully in
achieving organizational objectives. The customer relationship management can
play its vital role in creating satisfaction among its clients. The CRM is the
only one department that integrates that all those other departments to achieve
organizational objectives (Body and Limayem, 2004). CRM can use the latest
technology to recognize the client’s needs and wants. Latest technology,
procedures and methods are helpful in the way of success, all other departmental
outputs and decision making processes can be revolutionized and wise decisions
can be made with the help of latest technology (Gronroos, 2001). By getting
feedback from the customers regarding the services and products, employee’s
attitude, behaviour, decorations, taste, privacy, and luxury facilities CRM can
improve all these services according to the needs and wants of clients because
with the change in atmosphere, international competitions and change in
technology can change the needs and wants, and these customers with such
changing needs and wants create a gap in the market and CRM bridges this gap by
identifying these changing needs by providing suitable solution (Sugandhi,
2002). Whereas Gefen, (2002) stated that the organizations can bring happiness
and trust among the customers by providing services according to their
expectations and CRM can create the trustworthy environment for the customers
in order to achieve organizational goals for the growth and expansion of
Schneider and Bowen, (1999) stated that organizations through CRM
can hold the old clients and can generate maximum profit by having good
relationship on long term basis and can make new clients through effective
marketing strategies. According to the Bennett, (2006) the benefits of CRM are
well designing of such policies that can create trust among customers and
organizations must taking into their considerations all those factors that can
positively affect the satisfaction level of customers to earn revenue. If there
is a trust worthy relationship between the customer and organization and the
customer believes that the organization will offer them services as per their
expectations, then they will remain with the organization and they will tell
other people to buy product or hire services from that organization, this all
will be due to high quality of services, and in generating trusty, reliable and
long term profit based relationship with clients the CRM is responsible to
equip its employees with interpersonal skills, and honour the promises and
commitment made with the customers, employee’s attitude and their behaviour and
better services (Gronroos, 2001).
The researcher came to know that revenue generation depends on the
sales volume and the sales volume
depends on the number of clients old and new and organizations can retain the
old customers and can make new customers from target market if the organization
have CRM that has been designed effective strategies in the business
operationally. It is the only CRM department that can understand the importance
of customer rather than other departments and this is only department that can
bridges all the gaps that can become the loose in customers.
2.4 Client’s Attitude, Price, Design and promotion
Schlesinger and Heskett, (2001) stated that client’s attitude is no
more difficult to measure and identify but it needs some special skills to
identify what they want, and what is their actual problem.
The employees can identify the needs and expectations of the clients
when the attitude and behaviour of customers is so good and he or she is agree
to respond in good manners. The client’s response also helps the employees in
recognizing their needs and wants and according to this information the
management can serve them in a better way to build ling term relationship (Gilbert and Horsnell, 2008).
Whereas Bhote, (2006) has been stated that client’s attitude is the measure
that shows that how much the client is loyal with the organization, if the
client is happy and loyal he or she will behave politely and if he or she is
angry he or she will never speak politely. Thus the employee’s can ask the
client as per their attitude about the services and can make necessary solution
to their problems and have a chance to improve their services and skills and
can create loyalty among them and can build ling term relationship with them (Kandampully and Suhartanto, 2000).
Getty and Thompson, (2004) stated that design of product, its price,
values, offerings, competitive advantages and benefits are the factors that can
create the level of satisfaction improve and thus the loyalty can be increased.
Reicheld and Sasser, (2000) stated that organizations have a chance to build
trusty relationship with clients by offering them good quality of services at
cheap prices and in this way the organizations can generate more revenue by
offering other competitive advantages of products and services and cheap price
and discounts offers.
The trust and well image of organization can be built among the
clients by satisfying clients as per their requirements, and client’s feedback
can play its important role in improving services in hotel industry, the taking
feedback from customers is very reasonable way to find out the priorities of
client (privacy and luxury) for more satisfaction through skilled employees.
According to Bowen and Shoemaker, (2008) CRM can play its role in
building relationship with its clients through creating trust among the
customers this trust triggers them to buy again and again from the same
services providers that enhance the revenue generation. The attitude of
customers represents the frequency of services purchasing in a specific time
limits after consuming it and becoming satisfied, there is no such a term that
can define the client’s attitude but buying behaviour represents their
attitude, and there are many factors that can change their attitude like low
price, competitive features, competitive advantage and benefits that other
competitors are providing in the market (Richins, 2003).
If the employees have such excellent skills then they can easily
create strong relationship with customers at long term basis (Zeithaml, et al. 2000).
These skills are related with better communicational skills to deal
the clients and how to help out them in critical situations and in bad
situations. Employees sometimes do not know exactly that how to serve the
customers in critical situations because they do not know that how to behave in
such situations when the clients are rude and out of way they are talking. But
the companies can improve the employee’s skills and attitude through properly
courses and trainings on regular basis when it is required in order to reduce
the gaps between the actual needs and wants and the best offered quality of
services to them to bring happiness and loyalty in order to earn more money for
the organization. So it is need of the time to recognize the basic requirements
of each clients by having some special skills and format, the employee can ask
some questions from the client before booking room manually or on the internet
before booking the room there must be some questions that can help the
management to understand about the expectations of clients so that the
management can deliver services up to the mark as per client’s requirements
(Zeithaml et al. 2000). The client’s level of satisfaction can be measured
after consuming those services or products and in this way the companies can
improve their services and standards (Gundersen et al. 2006). The
clients can be deal in good manners if the employees have suitable
communication skills and trainings, if employee’s efforts and hardworking is
being properly recognized and they are awarded with prizes and recognitions then they will carry out their task very happy and this motivational
attitude will effect on client’s dealing (Zeithaml et al. 2000). There is a
direct relationship between the employee’s loyalty and the customer’s loyalty,
when the employees are loyal with the organization then they will try their
best to bring happiness among the customers and loyalty of employee’s is
related with organizational leadership style, pay rates, over time, paid
holidays and work place safety (Reichheld and Kenny, 2000). If there is more
gap between the offered quality of services and needs of clients then the
satisfaction level will be low otherwise vise versa (Kim, 2005).
2.5 Role of Customer’s Loyalty
Profit is directly related with the customer’s
loyalty and satisfaction because the loyalty comes due to satisfaction level,
means that when after using the products or services if the client is satisfied
by the results either the client will satisfied or dissatisfied. And if the
client is happy after consuming the products then the client will be happy and
remain loyal with the company and will repurchase more and more products
(Mittal, 2000). According to the Anderson, (2004) repurchasing of a product is only
possible due to the happy client if the client is happy then he or she will
come again to re buy the product or services from the organization and thus the
sales volume will be increased. There are some ways to increase the level of
client’s satisfaction the organization can increase the level of satisfaction
by providing them the better quality of services and in this way the company
can create a good relationship with all its potential customers (Buttle, 2005).
As the researcher came to know previously through review literature that
business are exist due to customers and when there are no customers it means
there is no business. Customers always exist due to satisfaction, and
organizations are trying to create the satisfaction among the clients. CRM department
is trying at its best level to recognize the priorities of the clients and
trying to create trust among the client by fulfilling all the commitments made
by the organizations to provide them. And if the companies make and launch
their policies and offer their services and do not successes then it is
impossible for them to earn more money (Looy et al. 2003). Instead of this if the company has offered very good
quality of services then the client will become happier and the client will
become loyal with that organization and resultantly the organization will earn
more revenue after repurchasing of services by satisfied clients. Trust creates
always loyalty and displeasure will creates frustration among the clients so
the organizations tried their best to create trust rather than dissatisfaction
The researcher came to know that the trust/
satisfaction is directly related with the quality of services and this trust
and loyalty triggers the clients to repurchase the services that become cause
of generation more and more revenue to make profit.
Customers intensity of happiness
Customers devotion creating
Earnings and expansion
Needs, wants, requirement, and
quality of services they want, they are looking, actual nature of problem,
and after getting appropriate services and solutions of their problem
customer’s become happy.
After consuming the services and as
per results become happier and this happiness will create loyalty and trust
and faithfulness among customers.
More sale that will generate more
As the above diagram showed that there is a
deep link between the customer satisfaction and the organizational growth. The
customers can be satisfied if their needs and wants are properly recognized by
the appropriate methods and procedures through skilled employees and this can
be done only with the help of customer relationship management in the
organization that is responsible for the designing and implementing such
effective strategies (Parasuraman et al., 2008).
2.6 Client’s expectations and Offered quality of services
As the Parasuraman et al.
(2005) stated that there is a big distinction among both things that can play
its important role in creating satisfaction or dissatisfaction among the
clients and organizational growth and expansion depends on it is the client’s
requirements in his or her mind and the services that the organization provide
them regarding their problem or need and want.
As per customer’s requirements
manufacturing or designing of services or products
The diagram shows that there are following differences step wise.
Difference between the
customer’s requirements and offered services. Because this difference is mainly
occurred between the quality of services or the quality of the products.
This difference is due to when
the organization measures and gather the needs and wants of the client’s and
gathered all this information and CRM could not properly conveyed the
information to the manufacture department and the manufacture department design
the product or services with low quality.
This difference is due to the
communicational channel, if the employee has no such effective skills to
identify the actual requirements and finding the actual nature of problem so
due to improper communicational channel the difference can be created among the
requirements and offered services (Parasuraman et al., 2008).
There is the solution available for all above problems (differences)
that if there is the number one difference then what kind of actions should be
taken by the customer relationship management in order to achieve
Actions to solve the
If there exist the difference
due to miss information regarding the customer’s needs and wants mean
The management must
check all the procedures and methods to solve the problem and the management
will improve the procedures for expected (according to the customer’s
requirements) requirements to satisfy the clients as per their demand. The
management will make all necessary changes permanently and will remove the
If the difference is
occurred due to the wrong data that the company recorded during data
gathering and analyzing the data in order to know exactly about the core
requirements of the customers and the data has been passed to the
manufactured department or services provider department accidently then
It will be the critical
situation and the organization will have to prepare and record again the
priorities of the customers manually and then they will again record the data
into a systematic way and will remain careful about data lost again. Here in
such situation the organization will allocate a specific number to the
specific customer (Unique Code) so that next time it will never happen again.
If the difference is due
to the poor quality of services that the organization has served or offered
to the customers against the customer’s requirements then
First of all the
organization must check that where is the actual problem, it means that the
organization will check the lack of competencies and lack of knowledge or
lack of skills required by the employees to handle the situations and
providing suitable services to achieve organizational objectives.
Here in such situation
the organization will come to know that why this happen and they will look into the matter for proper solution,
they will arrange classes, training schedules and courses to improve the
capabilities and skills of employees to handle customers.
The clients have a strange desire that organizations keep them in
their good book, even than when they call them they recognize them. And they
must offer them the good quality of services as per their requirements and
needs. It is very hard to keep all those customers keep in employee’s name but
due to latest technology if the clients have their unique code number then the
employee can enter the code number in the system and all the data and history
can be retrieved and the habits, requirements will be just on single click away
from the employee (Looy et al. 2003).
The client’s feedbacks and their opinions can be recorded there and in this way
it is easy way to remember their priorities to provide them best quality of
services and happiness can be created among them as per their requirements (Buttle,
2.7 Conceptual Framework of Literature Review
The researcher came to know at the end of literature review that
there is a significant affect of CRM activities in the sales and growth of the
organization in any organization. Every organization has its own goals and
objectives to achieve and to expand its operational activities to earn more
profit. And this can be only possible when the organization have customers to
buy their products or services. These days in the market almost all the
competitors are providing same products at competitive prices and quality to
retain, and capture new clients from the market to sell out their products or
services. Customers can be retained with the organizations if there is no difference
among their expectations and the services provided them at high level of
quality. Because when there will be no difference then customer will become
more happy and will become loyal with the organization. The organizations
through customer relationship management can handle clients and come to know
exactly about the expectations of the clients through well equipped and trained
staff and through having and implementing latest technology to itself. So when
the customer will happy then he or she will gain come to hire again the
services and their this activity will increase the volume of sales and in this
way the organization can earn more money.
3. Research Methodology
3.1 Research Method
Here in this section the researcher has explained the research
method that how the researcher has conducted all the researcher that includes
the resources, type of research, sample size, data gathering and recording and
analysis tools. The research method actually described the ways that how the
researcher will conduct the research as per all the objectives and the research
method keep the researcher at the right track to carry on the research as per
time and resources available. The research method explained the whole
population and the way to select the sample size and research method also
described that which tools the researcher will use to record and analyze the
data (Soderlund, 2008).
Research method is a procedure that is used in research conducting
that helps the researcher to conduct the research in a well manner and keep the
researcher on the track, in this method the researcher first of all gather data
both types primary and secondary, and tin this method the researcher explained
the sources of data, time period and the tools used in the research for data
recoding and making analysis on data (Reinartz and Kumar, 2003).
In this section the researcher has explained that he has selected
the ‘Case Study’ to conduct the research according to specific aims and
objectives. The researcher has selected the ‘Marriot’ hotel in United Kingdom.
3.2 Research Objectives
researcher has following aims and objectives to conduct this research.
researcher is interested in find out the link between the quality of services
and loyalty and their impact on the sales and profit.
researcher is interested in find out the importance of CRM department and its
link in creating long term relationship with clients.
out the actual difference between the client requirements regarding quality of
services and the features of products and the offered service quality.
researcher will find out the factors that can create the difference between the
actual requirements and the service quality.
researcher wants to find out the advantages and disadvantages of CRM practices
in hotel industry.
The researcher was
interested to know about the effective strategies and wants to find out those
factors that must be consider by the CRM department while making business
strategies for effective and desired outcomes.
The researcher is
interested in find out the challenges and issues in implementing the CRM
practices effectively in the selected hotel and will find out those factors
that can contribute in making policies effectively for desired outcomes.
The researcher is
interested in find out the factors that can improve the quality of services and
help the CRM in recognizing client’s requirements.
The researcher is interested in find out the importance of CRM practices
and quality of services that can bring happiness and create loyalty among the
clients. As per the literature review the researcher came to know
that the services providers can improve their services as per the requirements
of their clients in a better way by having and implementing the effective CRM
strategies in the organization. The researcher came to know through secondary
data that if the difference exist between the customer’s requirements and the
service quality then the customer’s satisfaction will be so low and the
organization cannot achieve its objectives efficiently and effectively. The CRM
department can improve the service quality and can reduce the difference by
some techniques and through implementing effective procedures to know exactly
the requirements of clients and as per their requirements CRM will design the
service structure as per their requirements and needs in order to achieve
The researcher has explained the research methods that the
researcher has followed to conduct the research. The researcher can obtain all
those objectives in a well manner if the researcher follows research method (Soderlund, 2008). The
researcher can use research method to conduct the research to achieve its
specific objectives (Flyvbjerg, 2006).
The research method provides a path way to accomplish the research, in this way
the researcher have manners and way to conduct the research in an efficient way
to achieve the expected results, the research method facilitate the researcher
to conduct the research in limited resources that define each single step with
expected outcomes, there are many types of research like qualitative and
quantitative but the researcher select one of them as per the nature of
research and the aims and objectives of the research (Reinartz
and Kumar, 2003).
The researcher has selected the qualitative research method to
conduct the research. First of all the researcher has explained the issue and
scope of research then after explaining the scope of research the researcher
has designed the objectives of the research and decided to select the case
study tool to conduct the research to achieve is specific objectives. In the
qualitative research the researcher design the questionnaires and design the
questions closed ended and open ended to take the response from respondents. In
this method the researcher will use the interview technique and the researcher
will use semi structured interviews to gather primary data from the staff
members of the selected organization. Qualitative research method is adopted by
the researchers to gather primary data when the researcher selects the case
study then the best way is to use qualitative research technique to gather
primary data. The researcher will also visit the web site of the organization
and the end will read the annual reports and will also check the entire
procedures and methods. The researcher has designed the questions in such a way
to achieve all the objectives by considering all those factors than can be
helpful in the way of designing effective strategies for CRM in order to bring
satisfaction among its clients effectively to achieve organizational
According to the Reinartz and Kumar, (2003) that through web sites,
books, electronic books, journals, articles, annual reports the researcher can
find out the secondary data regarding their objectives and the researcher can
together quality of primary data by using surveys, interviews and through
distributing questionnaires among samples they can collect primary data
reliable and valid. The researchers must use computerized sheets to record
primary data to avoid duplications and errors, and they can use bar charts and
pie charts to analyze the data for making recommendations and suggestions.
According to the Soderlund, (2008)
research method actually provide path way to the researcher that
includes tools, methods, techniques and source of primary and secondary data in
order to conduct the research and in this way the outcomes are reliable and
valid. The researcher can achieve their objectives by collecting primary and
secondary data by using proper and effective techniques to record and analyze
data effectively if they follow research method (Social research methods,
study is the best way to conduct the research when the researcher wants to
conduct the research about CRM effective strategies in order to achieve its
specific objectives and if the researcher has economical and time limits then
case study is the best approach to focus to achieve appropriate results (Feagin
et al. 2001).
researcher has selected the case study to conduct the research because the
researcher has bear all the cost from the pocket money and due to time
constraints, the researcher has decided to select qualitative research in order
to save time and stay away from the enormous volume of population and selecting
a large number of respondents (samples) in order to save his time and cost. In
this way the researcher arranged meetings with the staff members and the
customers to collect primary data from respondents to know exactly about the
factors and importance of CRM strategies and the role of CRM in the business
organizations to achieve organizational objectives effectively and to find out
the advantages of CRM and to find out the issues and challenges that CRM is
facing at the organization and the researcher tried his best to know those
factors that can play their effective role in creating clients loyalty and
satisfaction to earn profit.
study is the best option to conduct the research to gain the specific
objectives (Flyvbjerg, 2006).
instrumental case study the researcher conduct the research by conducting
interviews and distributing questionnaires among the staff members and collect
the primary data as per the objectives, where as in the collective case stud
method the researcher conduct the research by only paying attention on the
specific people that have knowledge about a specific issue or problem and in
the intrinsic case study method the researcher conduct the research on specific
case (Stakes, 2005).
researcher has selected the ‘Marriot Hotel’ due to some reasons.
many branches and it has good image in the mind of clients.
group of hotels ‘Marriot International’ has equipped itself with latest
technologies and it is operated in all over the world and have well trained
staff and well skilled staff and have customer relationship department for
customer relationship management and the services management are in operation
in the ‘Marriot hotel’.
‘Marriot’ hotel is providing highest quality of services to its clients and
earning good money and is satisfying its client at high level.
rooms are fully equipped with the latest technology like Tele vision, computer,
automatic door, auto shower, luxury bed, chair, swimming pools, TV lounge, and
common room, meeting room, dining table, laundry system on urgent basis,
telephone and fully idealistic environment. Due to all these above mentioned
facilities the hotel has good image in the mind of visitors and local clients.
researcher has choose the case study tool for conducting the research because
the researcher want to conduct qualitative research and for this purpose the
researcher has conducted some interviews from the clients and conducted
interviews from the CRM staff members and gathered primary data and record all
the data in a well manner in the excel sheet to avoid data duplication and avoid
own opinion to maintain valid and reliable data.
obtain good and reliable results the researcher must choose qualitative
research method by designing appropriate and effective questions and by asking
to the respondents, and in this way the researcher can save their time and cost
in finding actual nature of primary data and concise information about the
problem. The researchers can save expenses and time by choosing qualitative
research method and they can easily analyze and interpret the data as per the
researcher has the following questions to conduct that research and the
researcher was interested in finding the answers of these questions.
are the main advantages of CRM department in this hotel?
there some differences between the client’s requirements and offered services
believe that CRM strategies are effective for this hotel?
believe that the difference between client’s requirements and offered services
have bad impression on the organization?
factors can play their role in reducing this difference?
can make its strategies more effectively?
believe that CRM department can play its role in enhancing the loyalty among
the researcher wanted to know about the importance of CRM strategies in
creating satisfaction and loyalty among the clients to achieve organizational
objectives by recognizing their needs and wants and through providing them the
best one solution to their problem. Quality of services remained the main focus
of the researcher throughout this research.
and Secondary Data sources
The researcher has used different
sources to collect secondary and primary data during the research to collect
primary data the researcher has designed the questionnaire and distributed that
questionnaires among the customers that the researcher selected as sample, the
researcher has conducted the interviews of some staff members to collect
primary data. The researcher used website of the selected hotel, its annual
reports, newspapers, official websites, books, electronic books, journals and
electronic journals to collect secondary data about the importance of CRM
activities and quality of services. The researcher has seen all those documents
that the hotel has in its record regarding client’s priorities and their feed
back because hotel administration is using feedback techniques to improve the
quality of services and all the data was properly stored in the sequence and
well managed form in order to avoid mistakes, the researcher has used bar
charts and other diagram to present the data.
The researcher has selected
the 40 customers as a sample. The researcher has chosen both male and females
age range 21 to 50 years old. The researcher has selected the sample by using
random method, because in this way the researcher will save his time, and the
researcher has asked the question from the manager CRM at Marriot hotel and has
asked each question from individual staff member as per manager permission in
order to get variety of data but reliable and valid data. The researcher has
asked specific questions from the managers and other staff members to know
exactly about the importance and about the challenges to the CRM department at
hotel and about the importance and effective role of CRM at hotel in creating
and building relationship with its customers at priority basis.
The researchers must ask some questions to the key
post holders in order to make it sure that they are at the right track and they
are on the right track and are achieving their objectives in a well manners (Powell and Single, 2006). The researchers
must designed some questions to ask from the middle management regarding CRM
importance, quality of services, brand image, clients satisfaction and ask the
questions regarding solutions of problems and share their ideas and knowledge
and experience because these people daily observed the reality and handle angry
clients and these people create loyalty among the clients by providing good
services to them as per their requirements (Powell et al., 2006). The researcher was also interested in finding out the factors that can
play their effective role in designing some kind of such strategies that can be
helpful in the future to identify the client’s requirements. The researcher was
also interested in finding out the interpersonal skills of employees and its
effects on the quality of services and in handling the clients and providing
them better facilities and solutions of their problems. The researcher must
distribute questionnaires among minimum fifteen respondents to get better
quality of response (Macintosh & Lockshin, 2007).
The researcher has used the interview technique to obtain the
primary data from the respondents, for this purpose the researcher has selected
manager CRM and some other staff members to ask multiple questions to confirm
the importance and role of CRM on the sales and growth of organization. The
researcher has chosen this way because interview is effective communicational
channel in which the respondents can share his or her knowledge, experience and
actual current situation. Interviews are the best method to gather primary data
and in this way the researcher can find out the real and actual nature of
problem and its better solution as compared to other methods because in an
interview the employees know better as compared to clients about the real
situation and problem they can define properly and staff members can easily
clear the situation and can provide the best solution (Feagin et al. 2001).
The researcher has chosen semi structured category of interview due
to advantages and as per the objectives of the research. In this way the
researcher has obtained accurate in sequence and there was no favoritism in
this method to gather primary data. The researched has selected the respondents
by itself as per their duties and skills and experience and knowledge in order
to collect correct and reliable and valid data. The researcher know that when
there are some advantages of this method so there are also some disadvantages
of this method but as the researcher has used special skills in designing
specific questions to minimize those disadvantages, the researcher has designed
all the questions as per the aims and objectives of this research. The
researcher has used this method to conduct and gather the information about the
importance and positive role of CRM and its effective strategies in the
organization for achieving its main goals and objectives in a better way.
The researcher can obtain
information through questionnaires distributing among the respondents (Soderlund, 2008).
The researcher has designed the
following questions to ask these questions from the respondents. The researcher
has asked these questions to different clients aged in between 21 to 50 both
males and females and researcher has selected the sample randomly. The researcher has used all the skills and
techniques and by considering all the objectives the researcher has designed
these questions. The researcher has used open ended and close ended questions
to gather valid and reliable primary data without any prejudice.
The following questioned were
asked from the respondents.
Do you believe that CRM is playing
its role in creating loyalty and offering you better quality of services?
Do you believe that CRM can help
you more in providing you better quality of services by taking more feedback
regarding quality and your requirement?
Which factors can enhance the
quality of services providing to you?
Do you have any complaints to the
Do you believe that CRM is
p-laying its positive role in retaining its old clients?
Do you believe that CRM has
sufficient knowledge regarding your expectations?
Did CRM ever asked you about your
Do you believe that there is a
link between the dealing and sales?
Do you believe that there is a
link between happiness and sales?
Do you believe that satisfaction
can bring customers again and again for repurchasing?
Do you believe that CRM can
improve its services for more betterment in the near future?
Which factors the CRM must
consider while designing policies and strategies?
Do you believe that hotel staff is
cooperative and their attitude with you was appropriate and are you happy with
Do you believe that CRM can
recognize your expectations to offer you better quality of services?
Research Findings and
The researcher has selected the qualitative research method to conduct
that research by using questionnaires and conducting the interviews of staff
members. The researcher has found out all the data regarding the importance and
the effective role of CRM and factors that can affect the CRM strategies in
achieving organizational objectives and affect the sales and services and can
create the loyalty through satisfaction by providing quality of services. For
this purpose the researcher has designed the following questions.
As a result of the interviews with different level of management
,staff and customers in Marriott hotel ,conducted by the researcher, it was revealed through data
analyses that there is a great potential and important factor, waiting for
consideration of the Management to increase their sales and attract new
customers through effective CRM ,which can be described as under
What are the main advantages of
CRM department in this hotel?
manager responded that the CRM department is responsible for the following
employees skills and competencies
training sessions for employees for improving skills
it sure that clients are happy
effective strategies as per the output and recommendations of research and
Are there some differences
between the client’s requirements and offered services quality?
researcher found out that there is difference sometimes between requirements
and quality of services due to lack of skills of employees, due to
inappropriate system and due to attitude of customers it happens that this kind
of difference created among the management and the clients. Sometime this occur
due to misunderstanding between the CRM employees and the services management
department employees due to improper convey of requirement information, and
sometime due to improper research and development employees mistakes and
sometimes due to change in technology.
Do you believe that CRM strategies
are effective for this hotel?
researcher has recorder the answer that CRM activities are have importance in
the business organizations in this way that CRM is responsible for above
explained responsibilities. CRM access the requirements of customers and on the
behalf of requirements, the CRM equipped its employees with suitable and as per
need provided the skills to them to deliver quality of services and in this way
the CRM design set of procedures that can be helpful in creating loyalty for revenue
Do you believe that the
difference between client’s requirements and offered services have bad
impression on the organization?
course the CRM can reduce this difference easily and just by implementing
effective strategies in the business operations and with providing necessary
trainings to the employees and by developing computerized system in such a way
and by taking proper feedback and conducting research activities in the market
to know properly the actual need and wants of the potential customers. In this
way the CRM can only effectively play its role in making profit for the
organization. In the hotel industry client need extra and excellent services as
per their priority regarding privacy and luxury. Breakfast, car parking,
decoration, wall colors, Tele phone facility, electronic doors, online booking,
online payments, discounts, offers, pick and drop facility have secondary
importance, whereas the fast, quick response and handling complaints and
providing them best solution is the priority of clients that they want from the
Which factors can play their role
in reducing this difference?
should be honor at well in time
above factors can play their effective role in reducing the difference.
Employee’s loyalty can play its important role in creating the loyalty and
reducing the difference.
How CRM can make its strategies
make its strategies more effectively by considering and making media marketing.
should use search engine optimization technique in internet search engines
according to their needs and wants. Because when the CRM will focus on latest
technology then they may get more response from the market. Image brand is well
known in the world, and just by considering all those factors that can enhance
the productivity among the employees and can fulfill their requirements (http://www.crmtrends.com/crm.html). The CRM must use different channels like Google
search engine optimization, online booking, newspapers, and magazines and
should publish their statistical regarding client’s satisfaction and their
statements. The CRM must design their strategies in which the clients should be
able to express his or her own desire and expectation. In this way the
customers have more option to perceive excellent quality of services as per
their priority may be luxury or privacy or anything else they want.
Do you believe that CRM
department can play its role in enhancing the loyalty among the customers?
The respondent replied that yes CRM department can enhance the loyalty
of customers as per their requirements, there are so many factors that can be
considered by the CRM to enhance the loyalty in the employees and alternately
in this way the CRM will become successful in bringing happiness among the
customers and it will affect the revenue and ultimately it will affect the
business growth. There is a deep and sound relationship among the employee’s
loyalty and the client’s loyalty. When employees will happy with the policies
of organization then the attitude of productivity will become more and they
will do work with more heartedly to achieve goals and will devote their selves
to offer best services to the customers. The CRM should pay their attentions towards
The researcher has designed these questions
according to the objectives the main focus of the researcher was to exactly
found out the importance and role of the CRM department in hotel industry to
achieve organizational objectives by implementing effective strategies in the
you believe that quality of service can bring happiness among clients?
Ans: Yes No
The researcher has came to know through the
review literature that there is a deep link between the quality of services and
the customer’s satisfaction and the main reason of this question that was
designed by the researcher to know exactly that either the management is
providing the quality of services or not. It is an essential part of the
research. There are some factors that can contribute in enhancing the
satisfaction and when the satisfaction will be created then the loyalty will be
automatically enhanced by providing quality of the services consistently. So
after taking response from the respondents the researcher came to know that
100% respondents replied that they believe in that the quality of service can
create satisfaction among the customers.
Which factors can bring quality of services as compared to others?
one of them
After distributing the questionnaires the
researcher came to know majority of the respondents replied that they think
that their priority is to have quick service majority 37% believes in that,
whereas 30% believes that they believes that quality of service derived by the
employees attitude, whereas 25% believes that commitments can increase the
quality of services and 5% replied that brand image and 3% replied that
offerings can bring quality of services to the clients.
Q: Do you have some priorities in your mind
before booking a room?
Quality of service, Feedback, Attitude and behaviour of employee
and Behaviour of Employee
Here in this question the researcher want to
know exactly that what is in the mind of customers they are looking for some
kind of priorities because here the researcher tried his best to know about the
main requirements and preferences of the clients to make suggestions for the
hotel to offer those preferences in order to offer them quality of services. So
the researcher came to know that 100% of the respondents were agreed that their
main priority regarding expectation was quality of services, and 87% believes
in commitments that organizations must honour the promises in order to bring
happiness among the clients, 75% respondents believe that feedback is important
that can bring loyalty among the clients and 63% respondents believes in
employees attitude and behaviour. The hotel management by keeping all the
requirements along with their preferences so that maximum satisfaction can be
created among all of them for making more money and the expansion of the hotel.
And the customer relationship management can do it easily as they have all the
authorities and necessary human power and resources.
Q: Do you believe that there is a
difference between your expectations and offered quality of services?
Ans: Yes No
Here in this question the
researcher tried to found out the gap between the two main things number one is
the services that the customer relationship management employees provide to the
consumers its quality and the second variable is the their requirements. So
after gathering response from al the respondents the researcher now came to
know that a significant figure 90% shows that there is a difference between the
client’s expectations and the offered quality of services. And only 10%
believes that their expectations are up to the mark and there is no problem
with the quality of services. This may be due to the improper systematic
procedures implemented at the hotel and employees do not know exactly that how
to treat with the clients in recognizing their expectations and their
Q: Which factors can
minimize the difference and maximize the client’s loyalty?
Quality of service
Maintaining clients data
and their priorities
Honour Promises and
Quality of service
Maintaining clients data
and their priorities
Honour Promises and
The researcher has designed this question to
know about those factors that can reduce this gap at maximum level just by
considering all those factors that can play their effective role in reducing
this difference. So the researcher found out that majority like 100% believes
that quality of service can play its role in reducing the difference and
maximize the client’s loyalty, whereas clients data along with their priorities
and honour of commitments also can create loyalty and minimize the difference,
only 88% believes in that, 95% replied that communicational skills and 93%
believes that feedback can also play its role in creating loyalty by improving
quality of services.
Q: Do you believe that CRM department is handling your
complaints in well manners?
Ans: Yes No
The researcher designed this question to know
and to confirm from the clients that they have the knowledge about the
importance of customer relationship management or not. And they ever been there
at their counter for their problem solving and the workers deal them
effectively or not. And the researcher want to know about the real factors that
can be helpful in creating the trust among the customers by handling client’s
issues effectively on the spot in the hotel by offering them alternative
package if they make complaint or they want to change their package. Through
literature review the researcher also come to know that through proper handling
client’s complaints about 77% – 80% clients can be retrieved and can be hold
with the organization to earn more money from them. The main reason behind this
question was this, and after gathering responses from the respondents the
researcher came to know that about 75% respondents are agreed that CRM
department is not properly handling their complaints and only 25% are agreed
that their complaints are properly handled by the CRM department. So the
researcher came to know that the loyalty and the satisfaction can be achieved
through this technique that the client must be handled in such a way that their
problem must be solved at the spot to earn more money.
Q: Do you believe that CRM department can
handle problem related issues and can handle client’s complaints in well manner
and can provide you best solution through effective skills and their knowledge
and experienced employees to generate revenue?
Ans: Yes No
Whole the research round this question as the
researcher main objective to conduct this research was to found out the role of
customer relationship management activities effectively on the sales and the
growth so this as the main reason to ask the question from the respondents and
the researcher noted that 75% respondents replied that CRM department can
provide them best solution against their complaints and 25% believe that
already they have no any complaints and they are happy with the services
already with the services. Similarly the review literature showed that the
customer relationship management can handle all these issues related with the
customers in an effective way because it is the mainly duty of the customer
relationship management to handle the clients effectively and can play its role
effectively in generating more revenue and can make more money for the
organization as the customer relationship management has directly influence on
the other departments and have the sufficient authorities and they have the privilege
to get the favour from the higher authorities and after gradual reviews and
measuring performance they can easily judge the skills and abilities and as per
latest technology the hotel administration and other departments like customer
relationship management can design such activities and arrange training
sessions and improving their skills and polishing their abilities clients can
be handled in effective ways to achieve goals.
Q: How CRM can handle the client’s
Ans: Select from following
Attitude and Behaviour
The researcher has designed this question
regarding employee’s attribute that which skills and attributes are must in
their personality to handle client’s complaints successfully and provide them
best solution. 95% the significant majority of the respondents responded that
interpersonal and prompt reply skills can be used to offer quality of services
by handling client’s complaints and only 5% showed their interest that this
factor cannot play its role in creating satisfaction through handling clients.
Here the researcher want to asked about the factors that can enhance the
satisfaction level of the customers effectively in good manners by having some
special skills. So the researcher came to know through review literature there
some factors can play their role in handling customer’s complaints effectively
in good manners their complaints and can create happiness and pleasure among
them in order to achieve hotel management main objectives. And customer
relationship management can play its role in equipping these skills among the
workers through trainings and courses.
Whereas 88% replied that attitude can play its
role in understanding and problem solving and 75% believed that efficiency
attribute can handle the complaints.
The researcher has found out through
interviews and questionnaires that customer relationship management is a
responsible department that can play its role in creating customer loyalty and
can play its role in achieving organizational objectives. The respondents
believe in that CRM can play its role in identifying client’s needs and
requirements. It is not easy task to identify their requirements. Now with the rapid change in the
technology and by implementing these new methods and procedures the image and quality
of brand and services can be improved more easily. Similarly
the researcher came to know that some customers do not like to watch films
movies or dramas and they just need proper rest after whole day visits of
different places and they need privacy and comfort, they do not like to disturb
them for tea or breakfast or anything. The researcher came to know that
actually main problem with the employees is that they have some skills and
capabilities to serve the customers in a good manners but the problem with them
is that the identification of the problem is so complex and not an easy task
for the customer relationship management the customers looking for the
excellent services and expect high quality of response from the employees while
they are offering them services or serving them with tea or coffee in the room.
Due to improper information about the customer’s requirements it is very hard
for the services manager to provide the quality of services to the customers to
bring excellent performance. Majority of the customer are agreed that the
customer relationship can bring the happiness and pleasure and satisfaction
among all of them and they all have responded that there are some factors if
the CRM department can just consider all of them priority wise then it is very
helpful for them to design such kind of business policies and business
strategies and business plans and in such a way the CRM department can combine
all other departments and their work in smoothly and well manners that the
effectively the objectives of the ‘Marriot’ Hotel can be easily achieved
through these business plans, all those factors that the researcher has found
out have really so importance and the resource allocation must be according to
the each department, trainings and other skills like communicational and
interpersonal and attitude and the staff behavior with each other and with the
clients have an impact, majority round about 90% were agreed that staff
behavior and attitude, their body language and style and response always
contribute in quality of services. Majority of the people are in the right of
brand image that the organizational name, product offers, room size, and those
features that are related with the product advantages, features and benefits
over the competitors product contribute in the high quality of services because
when the product has its own image in the mind of customers then automatically
customers attract towards the organization and brand creation and image
creation is not easy work, it is directly related to the customer relationship
management department and it is the measure of their performance. Offering has
its own contribution and is a major factors that play an important role in
customers loyalty and in bringing the trust relation on long term basis
majority and significantly majority of the respondents respond that first of
all brand name and secondly offers season wise, package wise, group wise, on
some special events like charismas, Easter, new year etc play its effective
role in creating loyalty, trustworthy environment and faithfulness among all
the clients. Then on third point the main factors is honor the commitments and
honoring the promises that the company has made at the time of product
launching it means that the availability of the rooms, services, free services,
breakfast, free accommodation, buy one get one free and maintain the standard
and volume and quantity of the items and offers. Then after the promises the
main factor that can create the satisfaction is the worker’s behavior and
attitude towards the consumers and towards the productivity this may includes
their response and understanding their requirements and providing the proper
requirements and the last main factor is the fast service, quick service and
prompt reply to the clients against their complaints and their needs.
The researcher came to know that there are some factors that can
play their role in minimizing the difference between the prospect and the
presented services and in such a way the Customer relationship management can
bring more good association by designing and implementing these business plans
to achieve organizational objectives, these are included quality of the
services, old and new data of the private clients and their priorities if the
organization has the record maintained and keep in safe. Once again the
promises made by the CRM not by the hotel management only and only made by the
CRM and all other skills that already the researcher has described above these
abilities and skills that can bring loyalty and satisfaction among the
consumers and the one new thing and important factor is the feedback that here
the consumer has the right and maximum the consumers give the feedback
regarding their experience and it is the main check regarding services and their
happiness level to check their level of satisfaction and by considering these
factors the CRM department can make its role very effectively. The researcher
came to know that the “Marriot Hotel’ in the London United Kingdom has good
image and brand recognition in the mind of the major clients and it is good
sign towards their loyalty and product features but the only main complaints is
regarding the CRM services and the way of the treatment of the employees with
all the customers regarding asking their priorities and expectations at the
time of booking and after their entry they do not ask them about their
satisfaction level which is more appropriate, the majority of the consumers are
not satisfied with the complaints system that if they want to make a complaint
about services and in time services for example breakfast, tea time etc then
they must be known the way to make complaints such things for handling their
problem by offering them suitable and in time solution. The entire interviewed
involved person has told that the CRM must pay their attention towards the
recognizing of their requirements and priorities well in time. The staff of the
hotel is not so happy with the environment at the hotel they are afraid of
their career growth and personal development, they require the system to review
and performance measurement and the hotel management must provide them the
opportunities to learn more from their subordinators while during the job so
that they can make progress in the future and this is the responsibility of the
CRM department to design such policies for the betterment of the staff members.
And the employees also mentioned that the productivity level of the worker also
contribute in the excellence outcomes. About 75% which is the major portion of
the population is not happy with the CRM staff that they are failed in handling
their problems at the spot. And only remaining minor proportion is willing that
it is not a big issue but the research showed that there can be positive effect
on the sales and growth of the organization if the CRM department successfully
handles the complaints of the customers at the spot. At the end after doing all the analysis the
researcher came to know that the main problem is on the end of customer
relationship management workforce because they do not know and they do not have
such systematic approach to find out the exact requirements of the clients and
this is due to insufficient skills and the procedures and the improper
authorities otherwise the brand image of Marriot Hotel in London is so high in
the client’s mind and clients have complaint about the feedback that the
feedback is so poor. And due to this weakness the quality of the services
provided to the clients is not up to the mark and in this way the clients are
not happy with the management and the improper system of feedback and data
record keeping of clients must be considered by the management because the
hotel management has no such system to know well in advance at the time of
booking about the requirements and the priorities. The hotel management has no
such skilled workers that can handle the client’s problems and the
administration has no criteria to measure the qualities and skills and
abilities of their workers. The hotel management is only focusing on the decoration,
food items and taste but they forget that fast reply, feedback, regular
checkups and regular asking the clients about service, asking about their
priorities are the necessary elements of quality of services.
Conclusions and suggestions
Limitations and Conclusion
The researcher is a student and the he has short time and the
limited finance budget to conduct this research from the review literature the
researcher came to know that if the researcher has short time and limited
resources to conduct the research then the researcher should select the case
study tool so the researcher has selected the case study tool for conducting
the research and all the expected expenditures were made by the personal
And in this chapter the researcher has fully described all the
limitations and the conclusions after gathering primary and secondary data and
making analysis on the data and presenting the results in the last chapter. The
researcher has conducted the interviews by the management staff as the researcher
came to know through the review literature that when the researcher wanted to
gather proper and actual nature of data he or she must select entire people
from the organization in order to get proper results and the researchers must
use semi structured techniques to save time and money so the researcher used
this techniques to gather primary data. Through the interviews the researcher
came to know and the researcher concluded that the customer relationship
management is a department that plays an important role in the growth and the
expansion and in increasing sales volume of the hotel industry, the main reason
are that the customer relationship management is responsible for providing
necessary requirements and needs of the customers and the employees to create
loyalty among all, because the employees can also play their effective role in
increasing sales by handling the clients in efficient manners. Customer
relationship management department review the performance of the workers and
provide them necessary trainings and improve their necessary skills required
buy the hotel industry to handle consumers efficiently and on the priority
basis because there is a relationship among the satisfaction and the workers
skills and there is also significant relationship among the satisfaction of the
consumers and the sales of the organization. And customer relationship
management is also responsible for the designing and implementing all the plans
and the strategies effectively in achieving goals by handling and providing
quality of services to the consumers. The researcher came to know that it is
the responsibility of the customer relationship management in making
sure quality of services and handling complaints, designing and implementing
effective strategies, review of skills, competencies, strategies and making
amendments and then implementing. Employee’s loyalty based on salary, safety,
trust worthy environment, friendly environment, career growth, rewards and
recognitions. It means that if
the hotel management provide quality of services to the customers then the
satisfaction can be created among the customers and loyalty will established in
the customer and it will create positive effect on the sales and growth of the
hotel. The researcher came to know that there are so many factors that can play
their role in creating quality of services very significantly in the review of
literature and this was the main reason to design this question to found out
those factors that the customer believed in those to suggest the administration
to consider those factors while designing the policies and equip their workers
with suitable skills to create satisfaction level among clients for achieving
hotel objectives. from the review of literature the researcher came to know that
there are some factors on the basis of them the customers gauge and measure the
quality of services for example their opinion feedback, the worker’s style and
their behaviour of behaving with customers, company commitments and promises
that they have made with the targeted population to offered those elements and
offerings to the clients, quick and very fast response regarding any issue. The researcher came to know
through review literature that if there the gap exist due to these above
mentioned two variables then the level of satisfaction is so low. Satisfaction
level is directly proportion to the quality level of the services offered to
the clients and satisfaction is directly related with the loyalty and hotel
expansion and sales and its growth is directly depends on the loyalty. This was
the main reason of this question. But if the hotel administration become able
to recognize their needs then it will be possible for them to achieve their
targets well in time without wasting time and cost. And for this purpose the
administration have to improve the system and skills of the employees to
achieve objectives efficiently and in well manners. To enhance the satisfaction and as review
literature has proved that quality, satisfaction, handling clients by having appropriate
skills and providing solution have an effect on the performance of the customer
relationship management and hence a significant effect will be on the volume of
sale and its growth. Through
proper use of modern technology loyalty can be created among the clients. The organizations must pay their attention in recognizing the better
quality services providing to the clients at their best level by identifying
their needs because there are many differences that can create this problem
between the client and services providers, and these problems can be minimized
by skilled workers. Low quality of
services major difference in the expectations and offered services are such
factors that can create the problems for the companies because the clients
never come again to buy the products from the company or come back again to
hire the services. The manufacturers and services
providers consider all those factors in order to create the satisfactions
because the marketing activities are related and have a connection in message
delivery that on the basis of them the clients make their expectations and
these expectations becomes the standard to measure the level of satisfaction
among the clients. And the past experience of the clients allows and provides a
chance to the service providers to improve those services level to create
loyalty. The complaints can be handled in well manners and two types of
benefits can be achieved, number one the by providing suitable solution to the
customer the loyalty can be created and secondly the company can come to know
that where is the actual problem, but it needs highly skilled employees. The
organizations must equip the employees with highly communicational skills to
handle clients with suitable authorities that are necessary to provide solution
and making amendments in the services for better results. The
researcher came to know through secondary data that service quality has an
importance in creating satisfaction and loyalty among the clients to earn more
money. The researcher had found out that client’s satisfaction and loyalty cab
be created by identifying the actual nature of clients problem and by providing
them suitable solutions at right time. The service quality can be increased and
can be improved at maximum level with two considering. Client’s satisfaction
can be improved by improving the services that offered to those clients. From
gathering the primary data the researcher has found out that the employees are
in need of training because some respondents responded that they are not happy
with the services and the main issue is with the lack of systematically
approach of taking feedback from the clients at the time when they want to
share their expectations and regularly asking them regarding the quality of
services to make it sure that the services are appropriately delivered to them.
Similarly the researcher came to know through interview that this is very
complex to identify the requirements of clients because every client has
different mind and thinking style and different approach, attitude and behavior
and priorities as compared to other one, so they need system to identify their
needs and wants periodically and regularly, for this purpose they need
trainings to the staff members who can only do this job. It will also effect on
the quality of services significantly and will help full for both parties like
to the staff or management and to the clients. When the researcher has asked
question about the room services and came to know that some client’s attitude
remain so bad and they insulted the workers on a minor mistake like late in
tea, breakfast etc.
The researcher came to know that there are so many issues with the
customer relationship management here at the Marriot hotel in London United
Kingdom. The researcher has made following recommendations to improve quality
of services to the clients in retaining old clients and capturing more new
clients from the market and by creating loyalty and satisfaction among all of
them to achieve organizational objectives.
First of all the customer relationship management must review the
performance of the employees and make necessary arrangements for the
improvements as the researcher came to know through review literature and the
primary data that through skills and attitude and behaviours the employees can
handle critical situations in achieving organizational main purpose by creating
satisfaction among them.
The hotel management must authorize the employees to provide better
solutions by allocating resources to the management for creating happiness and
bringing pleasure by solving their problems and the customer relationship
management must design the system to recognize the priorities and requirements
of the clients as it is very important and in this way the CRM departments can
handle the clients and can retain then happily and loyal with the organization.
The CRM department must pay attention towards and for the welfare of its staff
members to provide them sufficient facilities and recognitions and rewards on
best performances and encourage them for better results because review
literature proved that through productive attitude the organizations can handle
issues and can achieve its goals efficiently. The hotel management must offer
cheap rates and packages to attract new customers and discounts to the old
clients. The workers can play important role so by keeping all the factors
which have been discussed in primary research and in analysis must be focused
by the hotel administrations for the better results in future.
There are so many areas which can be undertaken by the researcher
for more effective role of customer relationship management role because many
factors still need to be disclosed.
For example the important are the qualification of the employees,
consumers psychology, decoration, online marketing, marketing effective
strategies, 4 Ps of marketing, location of the hotel, offers and the luxury
The organizational structures represent the different level of management along with the responsibilities and positions of the responsible people in an organization (Bateman et al., 2009). Every organization has the organizational structure that describes the flow chart of command and hierarchy of the management and controlling system and different levels of management (Bennis and Warren, 2007).
Departmentalization structure is the best structure and in this structure the work and duties are assigned to the group of the people and there are different ways of departmentalization which are given below (Gemmill and Judith, 2002).
Customer relationship department
The main focus of the organization is to pay focus on the customers and this department based on the different needs, retention and capturing new customers from the market (Hersberger, 2007).
The main focus of the organization depends on the different functions and department divided on the behalf of the different functions (Intagliata, 2002).
In this structure the departments are designed on the nature of product, pricing, strategy to develop and design and marketing.
Here in this way the departments are divided in the different departments with different aims and objectives, each department is responsible for the different aims and objectives to achieve (Kotter and John, 2003).
In this way departments like regional departments and these departments based on the climate, availability of labour, raw material and other conditions (Mech and Terrence, 2003).
Chain of Command.
This is another type of organizational structure and the organizations adopted this structure with the aims and objectives of command like in military (Army, Navy and air force) in these organizations authorities, responsibilities and communications are of most importance. The structure shows the level of people at their ranks with their powers, authorities and their duties and responsibilities (Moore and Audrey, 2004).
Spain of Control
Sometimes there are more than one business partners and one manager is controlling more than one people to carry out the business operations, so the span of control can be tall and narrow, flat and wide. In the tall and narrow the managers control about 6 to 10 people, they supervise the employees and they have effective communication and fast communications (Plunkett and Richard, 2003).
Flat and Wide
In the flat and wide span of control the managers are authorised and responsible to design and develop the strategies and policies and train their employees. In this way the employees have more morality with the high span of control (Pritchard and Steven, 2000).
Centralization and Decentralization
In this organizational structure the main powers of decision making is with the low level of employees they have the authority to make decision as per their nature of work and routine of work. The higher level delegate authority to the lower level employees to make decisions to carry on their daily work independently. In the decentralization the operational issues and strategic directions are always from top to down (Bateman et al., 2009).
In this kind of structure the people from the different departments and the products have their specific as according to the nature of their projects. The people involved in the matrix structures face different situations and with their skills they handle the skills and sort out the solutions. In this kind of structure the loyalty among the employees always remained high and the resource allocation always become high due to highly skilled people involvement (Bennis and Warren, 2007).
There are different kinds of the organizational cultures all the cultures have been described in detailed below (Gemmill and Judith, 2002).
In this kind of culture the medium and the small size organizations this culture prevails and in the centralized decisions always designed by the small organizations where the power culture prevailed. This is the best culture because the organizations can control the wastage of resources effectively and the management can measure, control and monitor the business operations and workers motivations can be built easily as compared to other cultures (Hersberger, 2007).
Different functions and each division assigned a specific role and similarly there are so many benefits of this culture the each skilled worker or unskilled individual pay focus on achieving its goal and objectives (Intagliata, 2002).
The each person always assigned a task in this culture and in the modern era the organizations are adopting this culture there are so many benefits of this culture. The cost reduces and the wastage of resources are always controlled efficiently in way (Kotter and John, 2003).
In the non profit organizations the personal culture is going to be more popular and prevailing because these people have their specific aims and objectives to meet (Mech and Terrence, 2003).
Presentation: Strategic Planning . Strategic Management and Leadership
ASDA was originally formed in the 1920s as Hindell’s Dairies. ASDA was
established by a group of Yorkshire farmers who processed and sold meat and
milk products through Hindell’s Dairies. In 1949, the company changed its name
to Associated Dairies and Farm Stores Ltd. The grocer merged with Queen’s
Supermarkets to form ASDA Stores Ltd in 1965 (www.asda.com).
to be a value retailer that surpasses the customer’s expectations in terms of
product price. To this end, the supermarket chain says that it will provide
customers with goods as a lower price than its competitors do. At its more than
300 stores across the United Kingdom, ASDA sells food and groceries, as well as
other products for the home (Koch, 2006).
A mission statement sets out the long-term direction of the organisation. ASDA’s mission is: ‘to be Britain’s best-value retailer exceeding customer needs always‘ (www.asda.com).
SWOT analysis entails a distillation of
the findings of an internal and external audit which draws attention, from a
strategic perspective, to the critical organisational strengths and weaknesses
and the opportunities and threats facing the organisation. Whereas PESTLE
analysis is an audit of an organisation’s environmental influences with the
purpose of using this information to guide strategic decision-making. The
assumption is that if the organisation is able to audit its current environment
and assess potential changes, it will be better placed than its competitors to
respond to changes (Ronald, 2013).
This study will analyse the impact of political, economic, social, technological, environmental and legal factors on Asda. It will also identify the key forces that represent both opportunities and threats to its profit. Data is supplemented with details on the company’s history, key executives, business description, locations and subsidiaries as well as a list of products and services and the latest available company statement (Thomas, 2007).
SWOT analysis is the study undertaken
by an organization to identify its internal strengths and weaknesses, as well
as its external opportunities and threats (Julie, 2009).
A tool that identifies the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of an organization. Specifically, SWOT is a basic, straightforward model that assesses what an organization can and cannot do as well as its potential opportunities and threats (Albert, 2008). The method of SWOT analysis is to take the information from an environmental analysis and separate it into internal (strengths and weaknesses) and external issues (opportunities and threats). Once this is completed, SWOT analysis determines what may assist the firm in accomplishing its objectives, and what obstacles must be overcome or minimized to achieve desired results (Jean and Glen, 2010)
Strengths 1.Wide range of product offerings and service offerings include financial services 2.Known for its amazing marketing campaigns 3.In constant touch with its customers via social networking, asks feedback, conducts competitions, etc. 4.Socially responsible through CSR initiatives 5.ASDA has over 140,000 employees working at over 500 stores (Menon, 2010).
1. Limited global presence as compared to few
2. Their ability to sell prices have restricted their entrance is few countries as the country fear a competition with local vendors (Hill & Westbrook, 2007).
1. Expanding in new areas of pharmacies, opticians, jewelry and photo department.
2. Venturing into markets that are growing like India, China etc
1.Price war with other retail chains brands
2.Pressure of maintaining low prices.
3. Ever changing policies of various central governments
External environment factors such as down turns in the economy, and a lack of investment in innovation can have a significant impact on a firm’s strategic options (Koch, 2006). To obtain a better glance of how these factors will affect the planning process, analysts can utilize the STEEP analysis tool. When used correctly, the tool will furnish decision makers with information which should be used to improve existing strategic plans (Ronald, 2013).
1.Government policy on taxation, Employment laws including wages, rates etc.
2.Political unrest: due to influx of large number of foreign nationals in the country (Thomas, 2007).
3.Unstable Government: due to govt inability to stabilise the economy (Julie, 2009).
4.Government education policy: efforts to encourage more people to stay on high education
5.Stage of business cycle
6.Assisting people entering and re-entering the job market
7. Maximize the contribution of local and regional economies
8. Disposable income
1.Large influx of EU citizen in the country leading to a high demand for accommodation, welfare, healthcare and education (Jean and Glen, 2010).
2.Changes in social trends
3.Ageing population could lead to an increase to ASDA’s pension payment for their employees. It could also lead to another source of labour pool for ASDA to tap into.
4.An ageing population could also lead to unwillingness to work and an increase in pension .
5.Lifestyle changes: Longer opening hours in supermarkets means that people are working longer and / or flexible hours (Albert, 2008).
6.In areas of high concentration of ethnic groups, goods and services are targeted towards that ethnic group e.g. Slough / Southall Lifestyle
7.Charity: benefits to the community
11.Health and welfare
1.New ways of shopping: online shopping
2.New product types i.e. mobile phones, MP3 players etc. 3.Improved efficiency in stock control due to bar coding
4.Cost reduction due to introduction of new technology i.e. lower cost of labour
5.Self scanning of products
6.Chip and Pin
1.Increased demand could lead to increased
2.Pursuing environmentally friendly strategies i.e. focused on recycling
According to Capron & Glazer, (2010) that stakeholders
can be defined as the people, an individual or group of people or an
institution that can be affected or have an impact on the business operations
of an organization. Kotler &
Schlesinger, (2007) stated that stakeholders may be include
owner, employees, investors, media, customers and consumers, suppliers, local
community, banks, financial institutions, employee union, competitors,
government, industry and business partners (Acemoglu & Jackson, 2013).
Tesco stakeholders have their impacts on its business operation in the
following way employees have impact on the success of organization if they have
no productive attitude and do not agree with organizational objectives.
Similarly, the managers have their own impact on the decision making (Kotler & Schlesinger, 2007) if
they do not develop and design effective business strategies (Acemoglu & Jackson, 2013) and
decision in this way Tesco could not achieve its objectives (Benfield, 2012).
If the Tesco suppliers supply the material and furnished products with low
quality customers may angry and there will be low sales volume and Tesco could
not achieve targeted sales volume (Byars, 2010). Similarly, if the credit terms and
conditions changed by the Tesco to the suppliers that may delay in the delivery
of raw material and products and in other supplies like electricity and gas. Additionally,
ultimately there will be no more sales and Tesco could not achieve its targets.
New laws designed by the government (Kotler & Schlesinger, 2007) have
their own impact on the profitability of the organization (Cooper, 2010)
for example if the government raise the wage rate and also raise the tax rate
in this way Tesco could not achieve its targets Tesco needs to increase the
prices and customers may not accept these changes in price and may switched (Byars, 2010) to
other retail stores. If the banks, creditors or lenders may raise the interest
rate in this way there will be a negative impact on the Tesco business
to Locke, (2009) that Tesco customers are the
main stakeholders of organization because they want the quality of products at
cheap prices to overcome their needs and wants and become satisfy by consuming
their products. Being social responsible Tesco is offering products and
services at cheap prices and in this way customer’s buying power is increasing
and they can buy more products from the Tesco. Tesco is also taking care for
the environment and has been offering the products those have low carbon
emission in the atmosphere. Customers are more interested in offers, more high
quality of products at cheap prices from Tesco. Tesco consider their interests
while making its business strategies (Capron & Glazer, 2010).
are the human resources for an organization, Tesco believes in that human
resource is an asset for it and Tesco is investing large investment in
equipping them with good skills and training to them (Thompson, 2010).
Tesco work placement environment is friendly and health and safety issues are
also always consider while developing business strategies (Kotler & Schlesinger, 2007). Tesco
is offering good wages as according to the labour law of UK government. Tesco
is also compensating its employees with paid holidays, holidays, flexible
working hours, incentives, extra working hours, medical insurance, pension and
special discounts. Tesco has compliance with rules and regulations and there is
no discrimination based on religion, race, sex, color and disabilities all
employees have equal opportunity rights (Thompson, 2010). Employees
are always interested in flexible working hours, handsome salaries, extra
working hours, pension, life insurance, medical allowance, job security, equal
opportunity rights, career development and incentives (Johnson & Scholes, 2010).
now a day is the main stakeholder of an organization (Thompson, 2010). Media
is also generating revenue from the business organizations like Tesco. Tesco
launch its marketing and promotion campaign and advertise its products through
different media channels including electronic media channel, print media
channel and electronic media channel. Media want more advertisement and orders
to publish Tesco products in newspapers and broadcast its advertisement on TV
and electronic media has interest in domain registration and in offering its
services as well to communicate with its stakeholders and generate revenue for
its employees in order to meet its expenses to achieve organizational
objectives (Putnam, 2010).
to (Byars, 2010)
that there are a variety of leadership styles now
a day and no one is perfect to meet employees demand to achieve Tesco aims and
objectives by facilitating or hindering the changes in Tesco. In order to
fulfill the employee’s desires and Tesco organization the management always
find the new ways to achieve organizational objectives. Only the effective
leaders or managers are able to change their way of controlling the change
circumstances at Tesco through their effective adopted leadership style (Jan, 2011).
In this way manager at Tesco need to give
small directions to its subordinators and allocate them necessary resources to
carry out daily tasks (Jan, 2011),
this leadership style is only good when the subordinators are highly qualified
and highly trained and they have high productivity attitude (Johnson & Scholes, 2010). Whereas
the autocratic style of leadership is that where the leaders or managers can
exert control over the work and they instruct the workers to carry out their
assignments (Kotler & Schlesinger, 2007). In
the participative leadership style stall members are always invited by the
managers to share their experience, problems and knowledge to solve a specific
problem to achieve organizational objectives (Johnson & Scholes, 2010).
According to Capron & Glazer, (2010)
that the theories transformational leaders/ managers always have vision in
their mind and they always inspired other through their own work and also
inspire their team workers as well. Transformational leaders can do their best
work in innovative business organizations (Cooper, 2010) because they possess the qualities and
vision and have also the charisma in their personality (Kotler & Schlesinger, 2007).
According to Kotler, (2010) that some managers or leaders always focus
on the participation and this is called participative styles the first one is
democratic style in this way the manager or leader always use employee’s
knowledge, experience and skills and helped them in achieving organizational
objective in right direction (Locke, 2009). This
leadership style is appropriate when the organization can be possible to go in
wrong direction (Putnam, 2010). The
second leadership style in participative styles is affiliative style in this
way the leader focus on team work rather than group work. In this way the
manager increase the moral values of the teamwork and made effective
communication strategies (Robinson et
al., 2000) so that team workers can communicate with
each other and help each other in solving any problem that they might faced at the
work placement and in this way they can collectively achieve the organizational
Tesco sometime enforced by the new innovation
in technology to adopt changes in work placement and also leads towards new
trainings to the employees (Byars, 2010) as
well and to install the new technology in the business operations. For example
the new shopping trends adopted by customers were online shopping (Capron & Glazer, 2010) and
Tesco has adopted that change and started its website shopping and provided
that facility to its customers and trained the employees to book orders and
deliver the items at door (Cooper, 2010).
Similarly, Tesco has started heat sensors to reduce the long queues (Jan, 2011) and now the customers buy and scan their
product at automatic tills and pay by cards and cash. Now there are no long
queues on the manual tills (Robinson et al., 2000).
According to (Johnson & Scholes, 2010) Tesco
is achieving competitive advantages and want to sustain the competitive
advantages and for achieving competitive positions and sustaining its position
in market Tesco adopt changes to increase quality of products and to low the
cost. So to make growth Tesco need to make changes in its procedures and ways
of doing business (Thompson,
Politics, conflicts and power always play
their role in the business efficiency (Robinson et al., 2000), to
execute business operations, management make decisions so that employees can communicate
with each others at work placement and carried out their routine work
2010). It is up to employees that both they use
the power in positive or negative form to influence their colleagues and
subordinators politics has the direct impact on the organizational culture and
also increase the productivity attitude of employees (Acemoglu & Jackson, 2013). To
achieve organizational objectives employees often face challenges and conflicts
produced between employees while achieving challenges to achieve organization’s
mission. Employees become frustrated because of conflicts and their productive
attitude becomes reduced and it had negative impact on the productivity of an
organization (Benfield, 2012).
Employees feel stress and they do not perform well as according to their
abilities and they feel headache, loose appetite and feel problem with sleep
and could not perform well and conflicts also generate violence and people
leave the organizations and organizations have to face legal problems as well (Locke, 2009). There
are some positive aspects on conflicts in organizations for example it provide
a chance to the employees to brainstorm their ideas (Byars, 2010) that bring new ideas and innovations in
because of conflicts employee pay more attention towards
work and achieve organizational objectives, while there are conflicts in the
organization (Capron & Glazer, 2010),
management find out the real roots and improve its procedures for future and
make sure that there will be no conflicts among the employees. According to Cooper, (2010) that If the people in
organization use the power positively they increase productivity among
employees and built confidence among employees and people achieve their targets
effectively that increase organizational performance (Locke, 2009), and if the people use power negatively they
discourage the employees and conflicts may arise at work placement (Putnam, 2010). Due
to negative use of power organizational employees turnover always become high (Jan, 2011), according to Johnson & Scholes, (2010) that
employees those navigate the organizational politics always play their role
with productive attitude and achieve their targets. According to Kotler & Schlesinger, (2007)
that if employees positively understand the policies of organization can easily
find out their answers and they can enable to perform with more productive
attitude. And if the people fall in negative politics in an organization they
suffer from conflicts (Kotler, 2010) and
their productive attitude always decreases and they could not perform well and
could not achieve their targets and lose quality of work (Robinson et al., 2000).
According to Robinson et al., (2000)
that motivated workforce always contributed towards the productivity of an
organization because motivated workforce means workforce of an organization
with more commitment (Thompson, 2010),
with more energies, abilities to face challenges and abilities to create new
ways to solve problems (Acemoglu & Jackson, 2013).
These all attributes of employees enforce them in achieving organizational
objectives positively and tackling unforeseen challenges and obstacles and they
easily achieve their targets assigned by higher management (Benfield, 2012). According to Byars, (2010) that workforce with motivation always feel
their responsibilities and they perform well as according to their skills and
abilities and handle the situation and find out the best solution of the
There are following types of teaching
definition, which includes the identifying, finding out the leaner’s abilities,
identifying their needs and actual wants and needs and fulfilling their
requirements and equipping them with suitable resources to learn them the
education as per their requirement and as per their problem solution. Some
students may be disabling and they may require special equipment, medical
facilities and additional language to learn (Ashman and Conway, 2007).
Teaching approach must be rational and
logical and the teaching methods must be proactive rather than reactive and
defensive (Bandura, 2005).
The teaching methods must have the policy
and strategies that make sure that the teaching method will deliver the
knowledge and education without any discrimination and the method and way will
be based on purely on the equivalent basis, all students and learners will be
treated on same basis without any race, colour and religion basis
The instructor/ teacher must teach the
students and learners the subjects and provide them the necessary skills and trainings
with specific objectives and the institute must be involved in the process of
learning and in the process of delivering the knowledge under the specific
circumstances (Gibson and Dembo, 2004).
Before the instructor/ teacher start to
teach them it is recommended that the student’s and learners requirements must
With the passage of time the methods and
the requirements with the change in technology and resources and other
circumstances the requirements of the learners will be changed and the instructor/
teacher must change their way of teaching and learning style and methods should
In the teaching inclusive method is the
best way to teach the disable learners and especially when the instructor/
teacher want to describe the figure or diagram to the blind students then at
that time the method must be reviewed, the instructor/ teacher will reassess
the available material, teaching methods, policies and strategies to deliver
the material and knowledge to the students (Brophy, 2008).
It is also instructor/ teacher’s
responsibility to provide the suitable environment to the learners according to
the resources and according to their needs and requirements where the learning
outcomes must be in positive way and at maximum level the positive outcomes
must be sure.
The instructor/ teacher or the education
or training providers must design and follow the specific strategies and
policies for all the learners to tackle the challenges, problems and hindrances
in the way of implementation of learning methods.
As we are living in the assorted culture
so the best and effective way of the teaching is the inclusive (Cheung,
This way is the best way of teaching and
learning because the education can be promoted and quality of education and
training can be provide through this way.
the time passage the disable students have now complete awareness about their
rights and they have the chance to get education through inclusive teaching
method and such effective environment can be provided only in the inclusive
order to provide the opportunities to the learners and to provide them the
practice the skills and involve them in the learning activities towards
literacy, language and numeracy and ICT (information communication technology)
skills and these functional skills which includes essential knowledge, skills
and learning the communication skills with confidence and effectively so that
the learners can be able to spend their lives independently at their daily work
and in their personal lives, the government has been spending lot of money and
providing all the necessary facilities and equipping the education providers
all the resources and other facilities so that the knowledge and essential
skills must be provided to the learners effectively (Dellinger et al., 2008). Basically functional skills are those enable the
individuals and equip the individuals to stand them in such a position to
achieve better future opportunities in their lives and they can perform their
job, duties and perform their responsibilities in effective way.
Basically in the functional skills we
include English (writing, speaking and listening), mathematics and information
communication technology and these functional skills can be achieved and these
kinds of trainings and developments can be achieved at their work place. Actually
the instructor/ teacher and the students or learners need specific equipments,
technology and confidence, competencies and hands on and skills to teach these
skills to the learners effectively to the individuals and enable them to
compete in the life either at their home or in their jobs (Fives and
Buehl, 2009). In order to move
further in their lives the learners need the trainings or professional trainings
for further developments in their career path to make more progress. In order
to deliver the functional skills to the individuals the instructor/ teacher
must use the latest technology like power point slides (for presentation) to
make most effective interaction with the learners the instructor/ teacher can
arrange areas like online classes or conferences and the material could be
uploaded for those individuals (Evertson, 2005).
In order to provide the students the opportunities
to practice their literacy the instructor/ teacher must provide them chance to
the practice their literacy like writing essays, stories, emails, different
articles, reports on different topics which includes daily problems, social
problems and involve them in the class activities to polish their abilities and
improve their skills and competencies and similarly the instructor/ teacher
must take out learners and students to the out of class and provide them the
necessary opportunities to encourage their confidence to perform their daily
social lives and to fulfil other responsibilities (Gibson and Dembo,
2004). In order to create, develop and
increasing the numeracy skills, competencies and abilities within the education
and on the training the instructor/ teacher must started with the basic
mathematical starter activities and must be finished at the Sudoku and involve
the learners in the different basic mathematical activities like multiple
equation solution to solve different equations which involves addition,
subtraction, multiplication and division (Fives and Buehl, 2009).
The instructor/ teacher
can motivate the students and learners in achieving learning environment (Ashman
and Conway, 2007).
In order to engage and motivate the students and learner
towards achieving learning objectives through inclusive environment, there are
the following ways to engage and motivate learners which includes.
First of all clear the objectives of the learning to the
First develop the initial momentum among the learners.
The instructor/ teacher
can motivate the students to describe them the outcomes of the learning purpose
The learning outcomes must be concerned with the learner’s
interest, and learner’s interest must be involved in the learning process and
in learning outcomes.
The feedback must be given to the learners well in time so
that the students can contribute more while learning the outcomes
(Dellinger et al., 2008).
All learners must take part in questions and answer session
and the learners must be appreciated on their answers and the instructor/ teacher do not allow to make a
critic on the learners
The instructor/ teacher
or trainers never point out any student for any shamed or lack of concentration
and must identify their level of communication then choose the proper words to communicate
with them (Evertson, 2005).
The role of learning
environment has its positive and negative impact on the learners, while
positive impact always put positive changes among the learners and in this way
the learners can obtain maximum learners outcomes and the learners can achieve
the maximum education (Bandura, 2005). The ground rules are set of code of
conduct that allows the learners to develop and maintain the environment in the
class room and the instructor/
teacher or trainer can produce well standard of the work and reduce the
distraction and in this way the learners can gain more attention of the
students. And there are following ways to set the ground rules which includes
Trainers or instructor/ teacher set their own
The students or
the learners set their own rules
Both of them learners
and the instructor/ teacher
set their own rules to maintain the environment good by mutual understanding
the learners can work together and can design the code of conduct and the
designed code of conduct by mutual sharing and understanding will be acceptable
by all of them and in this way the ground rules are most effective and the
environment created by this way is most effective for learners and the
instructors as well (Brophy, 2008).
The learners can
write down their own ground rules and in this way the ground rules can be
established (Cheung, 2008).
In the United Kingdom, 1 in 10 women experience postnatal depression
following childbirth (Lewis, 2004). Postnatal depression has profound effects
on quality of life, social functioning and economic productivity (Chisholm et al, 2003). The health consequences
could also lead to adverse long-term emotional and physical development of the
infant (Miles, 1993; Jones, 1994; Boath et
al, 1998). Postnatal depression is also predictive of child cognitive and behavioural
disturbances at the age of 3 years (Campbell et al, 1995; Murray et al,
1996). Moreover, failure to identify these women often leads to safeguarding
concerns for both mothers and infants (Warrington et al, 2001). Health visitors play a vital role in identifying and
supporting women who experience postnatal depression. Their role includes
supporting families from birth to five, thus giving opportunity to provide a
prolonged period of contact and support to women affected by the disorder. However, evidence
suggests that most vulnerable women including Black Minority Ethnic groups do
not always receive this vital care.
Postnatal depression can affect men too. The birth of a new
baby can be stressful for both parents and some fathers feel unable to cope, or
feel they are not giving their partner the support she needs. It usually
develops in the first four to six weeks after childbirth, although in some
cases it may not develop for several months. There are many symptoms of
postnatal depression, such as low mood, feeling unable to cope and difficulty
sleeping, but many women are not aware they have the condition. It’s common
to experience mood changes, irritability and episodes of tearfulness after
birth the so called baby blues. These normally clear up within a few weeks. But
if a woman experiences persistent symptoms, it could well be the result of
postnatal depression. It is important for partners, family and friends to
recognise signs of postnatal depression as early as possible and seek
professional advice. Postnatal depression can be lonely, distressing and frightening, but there
are many treatments available. As long as postnatal depression is recognised
and treated, it is a temporary condition you can recover from. It is very
important to seek treatment if you think you or your partner have postnatal
depression. The condition is unlikely to get better by itself quickly and it
could impact on the care of the baby.
The main causes are not clear, but it’s thought to be the result of several
things rather than a single cause.
These may include:
The physical and emotional stress of looking after a newborn baby hormonal
changes that occur shortly after pregnancy; it is thought some women may be
more sensitive to hormones than others individual social circumstances such as
money worries, poor social support or relationship problems.
Women might be more
at risk of developing post natal depression if they:
previous history of depression or other mood disorders such as bipolar disorder
previous history of postnatal depression
depression or anxiety during pregnancy
Postnatal depression is more common than many people realise and cases can
often go undiagnosed. It is estimated around one in seven women experience some
level of depression in the first three months after giving birth. Rates of
postnatal depression are highest in teenage mothers and is thought to affect
all ethnic groups equally.
Depression affects 5-22% of women
after childbirth. Some women with postnatal depression will experience a
prolonged or relapsing illness that may last until their children enter school.
It has adverse effects upon the coping abilities of women, their relationships
with their infants, partners and social networks and may adversely affect the
educational attainment and behaviour of their children. Since many more women
are now active in the workforce, the effects of postnatal depression have
obvious economic consequences both for their families and their employers.
The researcher will find out themian causes of postnatal depression among
The researcher want to know the impact of postnatal depression on the
The researcher want to know about the treatment of postnatal depression
The researcher is intersted in finding out the main causes of postnatal
The researcher will find out the darkside and its bad effects on mother’s
The researcher will develop the positive suggestions and recommendations
for the mothers to
reduce the chances of postnatal depression.
The researcher will find out the risk of postnatal depression associated
with human lives
The researcher will find out its percentage and the age in which the people
become its victom
The postnatal period is the period following the birth of a baby (Omar
& Fattah, 1998) extending up to one year after delivery. For the majority
of women this marks a relatively healthy period in their lives. However, it is
estimated that a significant number of families areaffected by postnatal depression
with 15% of women diagnosed with this disorder (Leverton & Elliott, 2000;
Lewis, 2004). Despite the widespread nature of the problem the current process
of diagnosis and treatment is not standardised, is often chaotic and may result
in inappropriate care and treatment (Clifford et al, 1999). Postnatal depression is defined as an affective mood
disorder often occurring in women up to one year after child birth (Gibson et al, 2009). This disorder is often characterised
by feelings of loss and sadness and sometimes the loss of self-esteem
(Olshansky, 2003). The depressive scale of this disorder and its presentation
ranges from mild depression requiring minimal intervention to puerperal
psychosis which often requires multi-therapy intervention, hospitalisation and
long term support (Williamson & McCutcheon, 2004). Depression accounts for
the greatest burden of
disease among all mental health problems, and it is expected to become the
secondhighest among all general health problems by 2020 (Murray & Lopez,
1996). Minority ethnic groups represent 29% of the population in Greenwich with
an estimated increase to over 33% by 2011 (Whiteman & Guite, 2008).
A qualitative study by Amankwaa in 2003 looked at 12 women who have experienced
postnatal depression in the past and noted that these African women believed
that only white women get postnatal depression. This was considered a sign of
weakness that did not represent a legitimate illness (Cox, 1999). In 2004, in a
rural area of Ethiopia, Hanlon et al,
(2009) conducted 25 in-depth interviews and five focus groups with
purposely-selected participants. The participants included pre-natal women, fathers, grandmother, traditional
and religious leaders, birth attendants and community leaders. The aim of the
study was to determine societal recognition of problematic distress states in
the postnatal period. The problematic distress state was defined to include
both spiritual and mental disturbance. Hanlon et al, (2009) study identified salient themes that respondents
spontaneously describe as culturally problematic distress occurring in the
postnatalperiod, but they did not consider it to be an illness. This bears
similarities to the current study where women exhibited symptoms of postnatal
depression but did not regard it as an illness. The implication for practice
suggests that lack of identification could be a contributory factor in naming
the presenting phenomenon of postnatal depression. The overall findings suggest
that black Caribbean women often have difficulties conceptualising postnatal
depression, due to their tendency to minimise stress and their health seeking
behaviour. However, current standardised tools such as the EPDS do not reflect
the understanding and perception of women from BME groupsas demonstrated by
Clifford et al, (1999). Edge, (2004)
focus on ethnic groups offers greater understanding into the efficacy of the
use of the EPDS. Although the findings from these studies were from Caribbean
women, the overall evidence suggests that using the EPDS alone may not be the
most effective method for assessing women from different cultural background. Oates
et al, (2004) looked at postnat tal depression across countries and
cultures and compared the emerging themes across different centres. This study
found morbid unhappiness after child birth comparable to postnatal depression
but not all saw this as an illness remediable by medication. This cultural
approach also helps to understand why boys, who are most valued in Asian and
African societies, in western society are most at risk of insecure attachment,
cognitive difficulties and behavioural problems if their mothers had postnatal
depression (Sharp et al, 1995). The
consequences of this delayed effect of postnatal depression for the subsequent
generations could be substantial (Chisholm et
al, 2003). However, it is difficult to generalise the validity of the
outcome due to lack of clarity in data collection. Moreover, the homogeneity in
data collection could not be compared because participants remained in their
cultural environment. The findings therefore cannot be directly compared to the
present study which looked at African women living in Greenwich, UK, whose
thinking and perception might be different in the way they respond to postnatal
depression (Cox, 1999). Two anthropological studies, by Clifford et al, (1999), and Oates et al, (2004), in postnatal disorder,
confirm the value of cultural education and training to assist with the
understanding of the pathways to care and prevention of postnatal depression.
The researcher will use a focus group method to collect data from
participants. Focus group
is an in depth, open ended group discussion that enables exploration of
specific issues on predefined and limited topics (Krueger, 1988). The purpose of
the focus group was to elicit and validate collective testimonies and group
resistance narratives. These testimonies and narratives have been used by women
and could be used by any subjugated group ‘to unveil specific and
little-researched aspects of women’s daily existences, their feelings, attitudes,
hopes, and dreams (Madriz, 2000). Focus groups can facilitate the
identification of cultural values and they are said to be valuable when
researching ethnic minority groups (Wilkins et al 2002). Forthis current study,
participants felt very comfortable within the groups knowing they were not
alone in the way they felt during and after pregnancy. They were also able to
share their experiences with their mother-in-law knowing others have the same experiences.
Despite the positive attributes of using focus groups, I was also aware of
the potential influence of dominant group members. This means supporting
unassertive participants to articulate their views. I was also aware that not
everyone would be open about discussing deeply personal and sensitive issues in
a group setting. One of the difficulties centres on recording data during the discussion
whilst manipulating recording equipment and being attentive to detailed information.
These difficulties were managed with a co-facilitator who assisted with field
note-taking, verbatim transcribing as well as voice tape recordings.
Ethics approval was obtained from South London Research and Ethics
Committee before approaching the women. An application was made through the
Integrated Research Application System and a review of the process was made
before the panel of the Ethics Committee. The Trust also gave Research and
Development approval before commencing the study.
Twenty six women of African background aged between 16-45 years old, were
purposively selected from the health visitors’ list all of whom were African
women who had migrated and are settled in the UK. This age group wasselected as
it represents the reproductive and fertile record of a woman’s life. Women
under the age of 16 were excluded due to the complex and sensitive nature of
the topic. Participants were asked about their marital status and the kind of
support network they have at home, as studies have shown that women’s marital
status and the kind of support network they have are significant risk factors
that may predispose a woman to postnatal depression (Patel et al, 2002). Similarly, their educational background or employment
status may also affect their perception and the way they describe postnatal
depression. Letters were sent to all the stakeholders such as the health
visiting teams, the homeless liaison team, the safeguarding team and the
clinical psychologist team, after receiving ethics and R&D approval.
Recruitment of participants was made easy by colleagues who supported the
course of the study. Out of the 26 women invited, 22 confirmed attendances but
only 17 participated in the study. Eight attended for Group 1 and 9 attended
Group 2. The groups were seen on two separate days. An information leaflet
outlining the study (see Appendix 3), was sent to all
participants followed by a ‘phone call a week later. Transport was
organised to take the participants to and from the focus group meeting. They
were all given a gift voucher to thank them for participating in the focus
group. Each focus group lasted for two hours with 15 minutes break. Focus
groups were held in the Children Centre which is a familiar environment for
participants. The benefit of having a co-facilitator meant the researcher was
able to facilitate the discussion, while the co-facilitator was free to take
notes and assist with the subsequent transcription of the data collected
Women were given the consent form to sign to agree to participate in the
group. A focus group schedule which focused on how women felt when they became
pregnant, was used. The focus of this schedule was asking them to describe their
emotional feelings and the concerns they may have had during pregnancy and
after having the baby. All participants were given codes, all conversations were tape recorded and
stored in a locked cabinet on NHS premises, accessible only to the facilitator.
The two transcripts were read several times to understand the data. Initial
coding of the transcripts was then performed. Codes will made to capture the
descriptive language used by the participants. Once the data will sorted, the
facilitator grouped the data into themes, and examined all the cases in the
study to make sure that the description of each theme was captured (Pope et al,
2006). Triangulation will be used to
improve the reliability and validity of the data. The key findings will be presented
back to the participants through follow-up phone calls. There will general
agreement about the information collected. The tape recorded data will also play
back to check for clarity and confirmation of their descriptions and compared
with the field notes.
A teacher is responsible for the organizing culture and values and learning the students about the respect, moral values and social norms and ethics as well, so the teacher is most respected profession in the all over the word (Dahlsrud, 2009). A teacher is a person that pass the knowledge and cultural values and norms to the students and equip them for further higher studies and polish them mentally and physically them in a position to play their role as successive person for making the society more civilized and to maintain the law and order situation and playing their role for the betterment of society (Boulstridge and Carrigan, 2005). This is most responsible profession where the teacher contribute their role in providing education to the students, because in the future the students play their role for the development of the country while playing their vital role in the economical, medical, defense and all other sectors and their roles, skills and other responsibilities depends on their schooling life and it depends on the skills and role of teacher. So the role and responsibilities of teachers is most important (Gay, 2007).
In this step the
teachers are responsible to learn the learners through their skills and
behaviour and the teachers involve themselves in the multicultural environment
and the teacher also provide the learners all the facilities to develop a
culture in which all the learners can understand and learn (Marsden, 2010).
In this step the
teacher get the feedback from the learners about the effectiveness of method,
syllabus, resources and facilitations in order to provide them training or
conveying the knowledge and on the behalf of the feedback the teacher make
necessary amendments and changes in the whole process to achieve the main
objectives of the training cycle. The main
responsibilities, role and boundaries of a teacher are given in the following
sub sections (Piacentini et al.,
While managing students in the
class and managing their all other activities and facilitating them towards
learning the ethical and moral and cultural norms and values while promoting
the importance of academic environment to all the students the teacher play a
role as an organizer (Boulstridge and Carrigan, 2005). All the students
belonged to different cultural, ethnics and regions and they have different
languages, cultures, norms and values, and teachers organized them in a one
group and teach them through a learning process while using his or her
competencies while understanding the different cultures, norms and values (Pinney,
Teacher must play its role while
in the multicultural environment to permit the students to make analysis on the
negatives and positives of other cultures to find out the main stream of other
cultural ideas (Gay, 2007). The teacher is responsible to create an environment and
guide the students in such a way that in the multicultural environment to get
positive norm and values to develop a positive culture in and out the
classroom. And only the teacher can facilitate the students to acquire the
positive multicultural values and norms for developing a positive culture of
learning, the teacher must play its role to develop such abilities and
competencies among the students so that in the multicultural environment the
students always abide by the racism and never involved in discrimination in
their professional lives as well (Dahlsrud, 2009).
Some scholars have been stated
that the teacher must be responsible for the learning of referencing system to
the students and the importance of references and they must also learn and
teach the learners about socio culture and the positive impact of culture on
the learning process (Hastie et al., 2011). A teacher can play its role as a police officer, as a
medical officer in an emergency, a psychologist and as father or mother in
order to understand the learner’s special skills and abilities and competencies
to make the society more civilized.
It is clear that the teacher must
have the specific skills and knowledge in order to transmit the knowledge to
the learners, so the teacher must have the communication skills and
competencies to provide the learners reasonable resources and facilitate them
to learn them the attitude and behaviour to become civilised citizens and it is
teacher’s responsibility to protect the learners psychologically and come out
them from mentally and emotional problems and care them and teach them the
school rules and rules and regulations as well. Teacher must watch the learner’s
activities them and stop them and allow them to involve in 1activities and
understand them the negatives and positive impact of activities (Marsden, 2010).
The teacher must keep himself or herself far away from
the learner’s personal lives and could not involve in their personal problems
because they may have their political views, religious views and race views
entirely different the teacher’s point of view, so in this term the learner
abilities may be affected negatively (Piacentini et al., 2011). So the teacher must play its role as friend with
learners and remembered that he or she is adult and must not try to be buddies
with learners. The teacher must not remain with a leaner in the teaching room
or class room and with opposite sex, if the privacy is required then the
teacher must use office or cafe. The teacher must know about the teaching
method, teaching manners and must follow the role model being a mentor and the
teacher can encourage the learners, the teacher must report the learner for
sexual harassment either through physically or verbally. Teacher could not
abuse any student, physically, sexually or emotionally but improving the
emotional and psychologically their courage to achieve their objectives through
identification their goals and objectives and learn them knowledge and skills (Pinney,