Micro Economic Analysis. The Concept of demand, Supply and Price

1.        Choose a topic from Micro economics that matters to you and find a recent news article covering that topic

I have selected the following topic “With costly bananas, apples and grapes, orange becomes favourite fruit this season” was published in The Economic Times on 6th May 2014. The concept of demand and supply and price has been discussed very clearly.

2.        Evaluate the article using Economic concepts

According to the President of Orange association of India has been stated about the increasing demand of Oranges and production of Oranges in Nagpur city of India. He has been discussed the main reason of high demand of Oranges in south part of India that is high prices of grapes and apples. In Kerala due to heavy rain in June and July month the banana’s crop has been affected and due to shortage of banana and due to high demand the prices increased. There is a significant raise in the price which is noted as 20 Rupees per kg. He has been discussed that main sources of Oranges like Nagpur and Amravati and the production of Oranges in both cities fulfil the demand of oranges in Chennai, Kerala and Bangalore. According to the AB vegetable and Fruits owner Mr. Liaqat Ali in Chennai that although due to high supply of Oranges the price should be down, but due to high price in transportation, there will be no lower prices in the orange and it will be available in the market on previous year price that was Rs 35 per kg. He has been stated that the price will be changed (rise) because in the month of January and February there will be more demand of orange and according to supply and demand rule the prices will go up, so it is early to predict the demand and supply. Due to high quality of Kerala oranges in January and February the demand will be increased and it will increase the price up to Rs. 40 per kg and also will increase the supply. Apple quality is not good that’s why traders import the apple due to high demand of quality apple from other countries and the prices will increase. Nazar Muhammad a wholesaler has been stated that as some days ago the orange was available at the price of Rs. 14 to 15 per kg, and due to increase in demand it is now available at Rs. 18 to 22 per kg, the harvesting of orange is in process, in January as the new crop will reach in the market the demand will remain same but the supply will be increased and the prices will go down again. As there is a clear cut picture of demand and supply, and price. With the new crop the supply of orange increase, due to shortage of bananas the prices went up because due to high demand and low supply and shortage of bananas. All the concepts of demand, supply and their affect on price have been covered. Mr. Nazar Muhammad fruit wholesaler of Kalamna market in Maharashtra stated that the wholesale price orange some days ago was round about Rs 14 to 15 per kg, but now there is an increase in the price which is Rs. 18 to 22 per kg in wholesale market. And the prices will again come down due to high supply and low demand in January when new crop will reach in market as harvesting is in process.

Explain how you can present the issue in terms of economic concepts and theories you have learnt in class

According to the article published in “The Economic Times” that the president of Orange Association of India Mr. Amol M. Totey has been stated that the orange production recorded in this year is the double in Nagpur city. And the demand of Oranges in the southern of the country has been increased significantly this year.

Rise in Price Rs. 20/ kg due to high demand of banana.

Due to high supply of Oranges/ commodities the price should be low (High demand high price, high supply lower price). The price of oranges was down due to high supply but due to high transportation charges, Oranges will be available in the market at previous year rate.

There is a direct relationship between demand and supply, more demand always raise the price if the supply is low.

As in January and February there will be an increase in the demand of orange and its prices will be increased that will be Rs. 40 per kg, it means that due to high demand the supply will be increase and there will be increase in the price of orange.

In Kochi per day market gets about 100 tonne. Increase in the demand of quality apple will increase the prices and will increase the supply.

When demand remains same and supply increased due to new crop then the prices come down due to high supply. High supply will lower down the prices due to short demand.

Explain what actions you would recommend to the key players and/or policy holders.

This sudden increase in the Orange demand from south part of India is due to the high pricing of apples and grapes in the southern part of India. People living in Vizag, Kerala, Chennai, Bangalore and Hyderabad has demanded for more Oranges. Due to heavy rain in month of June and July and other climate changes has significant effect on Banana’s crop and damaged the yield of bananas that also cause in raising the banana price due to its shortage. The banana price that was available in the local market at price of Rs. 30 to 40 per kg in the past years are now selling at Rs. 50 to 60 per kg. In the southern markets the Oranges are now available and usually Orange availability in the southern market was started in the start of October till November and remained till summer season. Although the supply of the Oranges is so high this year but it will not lower the price due to high price of diesel and in this way the transportation charges will be high and the Orange will be available in the market as per last year price that was Rs. 35 per kg. In January and February the Orange demand will go up and in this way it will affect the price. There is daily supply is about 150 tonne in the main market of Chennai, and as the production of the Orange is clear evident in Kerala and consequently supply will be increased in coming weeks. Due to high quality of Orange there will be increase in its demand and the price of orange will be increased about Rs. 40 per kg. And the supply will be increased because the production is also increased. Traders import the high quality of apple from other countries and the prices of apple will be doubled due to high demand of high quality apples.

Explain how the above analysis supports your conclusion (1 to 2 paragraphs)

3.        You may provide graphs/charts/diagrams where necessary to enhance your presentation style.

3.1      Supply Curve

Shift in supply curve (Rising Cost)

Source: Author

Supply curve is always upward because according to supply law that high prices, more quantity of commodities is supplied (high price more supply), that’s why the supply curve goes upward. So when the price of orange will be high the supply will be increased and the supply curve will be gone up.

Shift in supply curve (Lower cost)

Source: Author

3.2      Demand Curve

Increase in demand

Source: Author

According to the law of demand that when price of commodities higher that time quantity of demanded product is less, so the curve of demand will be downward sloping curve. Due to high price the demand curve will be downward. And supply will be upward.

Decrease in Demand

Source: Author

3.3      Equilibrium

An increase in the supply S, with constant demand D will be decrease and equilibrium price P* and increase equilibrium quantity Q*.

Similarly decrease in supply S, with constant demand D will increase equilibrium price P* and decrease with constant quantity Q*

Source: Author

When the demand and supply becomes equal that state is called equilibrium point, the point where the demand and supply of commodities meet together. If the price is above the equilibrium point it means that commodities are in surplus and if the real price is below the equilibrium point it means that the shortage of commodities.

3.4      Shifting the supply Curve

Source: Author

With the change in economy there is always a change in supply curve either left or right. A change in price can be occur due to change in supply of commodities such as change in price of oil due to new technology or discovery of new well. Change in supply due to new crop may shift he supply curve.

3.5      Shifting the Demand Curve

Source: Author

The demand curve can be shifted right or left due to change in the income of consumers, for example change in interest rate, more money, decrease in income tax, high wages, more job opportunities can bring change in buying power and thus a change will occur in the demand. Low buying power will decrease the demand and more buying power will increase the demand.

4.        You need to attach a copy of the article with your assignment.

Does Soap and the Water can help to reduce the cross infection among the patients hospitalized?

Introduction

According to the Voss and Widmer, (1997) that it is acknowledged that here are many benefits are related with the hand washing which includes the cost reducing and for the human being there are many other benefits like it also prevent from the infections. Similarly the Newsom, (1993) has been stated that hand washing can play its important role in reducing the mortality predates and the morbidity in minimizing them. He also has been stated that the hands washing also prevents in cross prevention and also prevent the human being from infections.

1.1 Background

The ratio of the infection is always high in the situation where many people live together or they work together closely, in such situation the probability of the infection is so high. As it has been observed that in the care homes the entire resident they live together like family members and they commonly use and share so many facilities like bath rooms and kitchens so there the probability of spreading infection is so high. But the high probability of spreading the infection can be reduced if the precautions and necessary actions taken on time. And in order to reduce the probability of spreading high ratio of cross infection the awareness and the education can play its effective role. In order to prevent the cross infection basic hygiene requirements are need to be implemented. According to the Bradley & Rees, (2003) have been stated that due to different kind of infections can produce different diseases and the information regarding hand washing benefits can also play its important role in prevention of such diseases those can be produced in the result of cross infections.

There are so may kind of infection diseases those can be easily infect the people where some people are living together and they are sharing the baths, toilets, kitchen and also share the utensils’ and other things they share to use. So the ratio of these kind of diseases can be controlled and can be reduced to a significant numbers if the proper precautions could be undertaken by the people and the awareness of hand washing and other hygiene actions and standards can be implemented and people act on the guidelines to prevent themselves from such type of infections and they can avoid themselves to become victim of such infections, because these infections become cause of many illness among them and these kind of diseases can be easily transfer from one person to other person.

Some of the disease can be life threatening and some of the infections can be more dangerous to the human beings. Underlying the medical conditions some kind of infections are dangerous whereas some of them are curable easily, and antibiotics medicines can play their role as a high resistance and the victims can be recovered its health after taking the antibiotics.

1.2 Guidance on the control and prevention of infection

In June 2003 the National Institute for health and clinical excellence has been published the prevention guidelines from the infections in order to control the spreading the infections. These all the guidelines to prevent the people from the cross infection and these all guidelines were based completely on the scientific scholars statement and were also documented, all those conclusions and the positive recommendations were completely based on the HCAI primary principles and on the high standards and all the measures were made and evaluation methods were used and implemented just in order to prevent people from the cross infection to save their lives and to improve their health and life standards. 

According to DOH, (2009) that HCAI can also control and prevent the infection through some kind of technical details and technical audits and by creating awareness among the patients to prevent themselves from the cross infections.

1.3 Aim of the Research

There are the following aims and objectives of this research

The researcher will find out about the role and benefits of soap and water in order to minimize the effect of infection

The researcher will also find out the role of water and soap in reducing the number of infected people from cross infection

The researcher will find out the role of soap and water in improving people health quality

According to the Baker et al., (2009) Basically it is the microbiology clinical application to prevent the people from cross infection, there are so many kinds of infections and disease those can be caused just because of viruses, fungi and bacteria and so many kind of infections like blood infection, respiratory infection, bone infections, skin infection and urinary infections. It has been proved that all kind of the infections are not cross infections.

Research Approach

The research method and the tools and research techniques adopted by the researcher to conduct this research will be discussed here in this section in detail. The researcher will also describes here about the tools like charts and diagrams and about the source of primary and secondary data gathering as well, as sampling techniques and data storing techniques and methods will be describe here.

1.4 Objectives

There are following objectives of this research

  • The researcher will analyse the literatures critically on the topic of infection and its causes and the methods and guidelines to prevent people from this infection.
  • The researcher will also find out the ways and advantages and importance of all methods those can play their role in controlling and preventing the infection in the care homes to improve the quality of health and lives of residents.
  • At the end the researcher will make conclusion and recommendations to improve the weak areas and to improve the strategies.

1.5 Research questions

There are the following research questions those have been designed by the researcher to achieve the above aims and objectives related with this research.

  • Which steps are necessary to taken under considerations by the care homes to make preventions and making control the infection in the care homes in United Kingdom?
  • What are the main hindrances, issues and problems are related while implementing guidelines to prevent the infection in care homes?
  • What are necessary and basic actions important to control and prevent the infections in the care homes?

Literature review

2.1 Significance of infection control programs

Now a day there is a problem worldwide called infection and health care is associated with this worldwide problem, in the hospital everywhere the infection germs are available due to the infections victims and these germs of infections are the main causes of death in the hospitals.

Too much health care resources are required and its cost is so high to offer care services, the cost of health care especially to provide the antibiotic and to provide health care facilities the hospitals need more laboratory studies and medicine supply. According to Rhinehart and Friedman, (2006) that hospitals have acquire the infections germs those can damage the patient’s quality of life. And these germs acquired hospitals need more cost and technology to prevent the patients from the infections that can lead the patients towards the death and hospitals have limited resources to prevent and clean the atmosphere of hospital free from infection germs. With the passage of age the patients suffered from the chronic disease and the major cause of multiple diseases is the infection and due to these chronic diseases the hospitals acquire the infection germs. And one main and major cause of hospital acquired infection is the use of advanced technology and the persistent procedures and due to these causes the old people are suffering from the chronic diseases. The main cause and factors those play their role in acquiring infections in the hospitals include antimicrobial resistant bacteria. And due to these and poor systems and low intentions and unawareness among the people about the use and benefits of hygiene use and overcrowding of patients in the hospitals and due to the shortages of untrained and unskilled employees or staff members those can play their effective role in preventing infections.

2.2 Infection control and promoting factors in care homes

There are some considerations which can be used to provide sufficient care and treatment to the infection victim patients and the hospitals and surgeries and care homes must provide the necessary treatment to the sick people at every cost.

There are following considerations those leads towards reflection

Health care services without infections are always required by the people

While during the treatment the people can be affected through the infection in the hospital or through working or eating or sharing toilets or kitchens stuff with infected people due to cross infection bacteria.

During treatment the people pass through damaged procedures and processes that can cause them infection

According to the Bearman et al., (2004) that health care providers can also transfer into the customers and themselves as well during the investigation and observation process the infectious agents in both ways like indirectly or directly.

There are following some factors those can contribute their important role in spreading the cross transmission and those factors are given as under

In the hospital when there are so many people admitted for their treatment and when there is shortage of staff members to provide necessary treatment

Similarly when there are limited sources to control the infection due to less resources and medicines and it might be because of cost factor

2.3 Different means of infectious disease transmission in homes

In the hospitals there are two kind of main sources of infection and both are discussed in detail below one by one

Exogenous Sources: In this way the infection always spread and the infection bacteria occur just because of the patients those enter the hospitals and come from outside this is called exogenous source of infection bacteria in the hospitals and in this way the others like other patients or staff members they can be affected and the infection can be developed inside them.

Endogenous Source: This is the second way of infection spreading in the hospitals and in this way the bacteria or infection already exist inside the hospital and germs remained inside the part of the hospital and the patients can be affected due to microbes and the patients can be affected seriously.

2.4 Way of infection transmission

2.4.1 Disease transmission cycle

There are some mode of infection transmission inside the human body and the infection can be developed and damage the human body seriously and other people can become victim of infection, so first of all is the main mean of infection transmission is the disease transmission cycle which states that infection can be controlled when all the other necessary elements are clear, means when the infectious agents is identified and the source of the agent has been identified, the susceptible host must be identified those received the agent must be identified and the source from host to agent must be identified then in this way the infection can be controlled successfully. And the basically the relationship among all is called the chain of the infection and some of the scholars stated it as disease or infection transmission cycle (East, 1999). Similarly East, (1999) has been stated that in order to break the transmission of the infection it is necessary to break down the infection transmission chain and then in this way the infection control is possible.

2.4.2 Mechanism of disease transmission cycle

There are the components of the infection transmission cycle those have been discussed below

  1. Agent

Agent is the major component that can cause the disease and that can be one of the between following different agents like parasites, virus, fungi or bacteria, so one of them can be the agent of the infection.

  • Reservoir

 2nd main component of the infection transmission cycle is the reservoir and if there is no reservoir then the infection transmission is not possible, and the agent as discussed above is always resides and its growth is always take place in the reservoir. According to the Ayliffe et al., (2000) have been stated that all the items which includes and take part in the clinical processes and procedures always serve as the infection agent reservoirs and the items like human being, plants, air, soil, animals, solutions and water those can take part in the clinical procedures can serve as reservoir for the infection agents.

  • Exit Place

First of all the infection bacteria called the agent get growth in the reservoir and after infection it leave the reservoir that is called the exit place and the only one way is the skin cut, blood stream, surgical suit, puncture and rash which are known as the exit place for the infection agent.

2.5 Modes of infection Transmission

As the researcher has been discussed above about the mode of transmission of the infection agent and its three ways, agent, survivor and exit way as well, all this movement started from agent to survivor and then exit is called the infection transmission mode and there are total five ways of infection transmission which are discussed below one by one.

  1. Contact:     

This means the direct mean of infection transmission like through sexual inter course or through touching the infected person, it can be through the hospital visit frequently because the infection germs can be transferred into human being through hospital atmosphere or through any clinical procedure or it can be possible through infection acquired instrument or area.

This area has been divided into two major sub sections

(i).     Indirect Transformation:         In this way the infection germs can be transferred through infected (already contained infection germs) through infected needle, any other infected clinical or surgical instrument, gloves or through contaminated dress.

(ii).    Direct Transformation: the second main source of the infection transformation is the direct source like through one body to another body, one surface to another surface, one physical transformation to another like from one person blood to another person blood it can be transferred.

2.       Droplet Transformation:        

This is the second main mode of infection transformation, and in this way the researcher will discuss about the droplet transformation which is always generated by the cough of the already contaminated germs, through the patient (the person who is already contained the infection germs) sneezing, bronchoscope or through his or her talk as well, and the contaminated drops if fallen at some distance (short distance) some scholars have been stated that minimum at one meter distance they can be affected and harmful for the other healthy people. According to the Wilson, (2011), that through air contaminated drops can be transmitted into other people and the infection agent can move easily in the survivor easily and there is no such a way to disturb the air to interrupt this air that contained the agents.

3.       Vector Transmission

This kind of infection can be possible through the mosquitoes and the other animals those are already infected through the infection the infection agent always transferred through them those have already this infection inside their body and become cause of infection agent transformation in other physical bodies for example the yellow fever, malaria, plague and fleas for most common here.

4.       Common Vehicle Transmission

According to the Pratt et al., (2001) that sometimes the infection agent can be transmitted through the specific material that already contained the infection agent for example the blood that already contained hepatitis A Virus, B Virus and C infection virus and HIV and HCV similarly salmonella spp. Food, in the water some the existence of Shigella or Chol era can also become cause of infection transmission and the infection can be transferred from one people to other people.

5.       Airborne Transmission

Some time the droplet nuclei remained in the atmosphere and they might be suspended for a long time in the air and can cause to transfer the infection agents in the other physical human body and especial kind of air ventilators and air handling are required to disturb the droplet transformation of infection from air to healthy body, Measles and M. Tuberculosis are the both kind of infections agents those can easily transmit from air to survivors.

2.6 Infection control practices and its Importance

Infection agent transformation control can be break and the disease spreading can be controlled and can be prevented by creating the awareness among the people regarding the use of water and soap and its role and importance. According to the Wilson, (2001) that the awareness about the disease and infection from the HCV and HIV and from the HCV and the scope of the controlling actions and all other activities those can play their role positively, in order to break the infection transmission spreading cycle or chain it is very important to find out the importance of those steps that can easily play their role in breaking the chain or cycle of the germs transformation. And in order to break the chain first of all the agent transmission methods are very important. Now it is necessary to create the awareness among the people and then it is necessary to pay the attention towards reducing the risk of spreading the infection agents from one body to another body and the main focus must be paid on the cleanliness atmosphere and surroundings and attention must be paid on the cleaning homes and personal cleaning and to the community members as well to prevent the infection and to break the infection agent chain. 

Research Methodology

3.1 Introduction

This is very important section and in this section the researcher will discuss and will explain about the method those will be adopted to conduct the research which includes the importance of case study selection, research limitations, sample size and sample selection method, research method either quantitative or qualitative, tools and techniques those will be adopted by the researcher to records, making analysis and conclusions will be explained. The researcher will also discuss the source of secondary and primary data and collection techniques and ethical consideration and collected data validity and reliability will be discussed and explained.

3.2 Research Method

According to the Saunders et al., (2009) have been stated that it is the demand and need of the time to choose more than one research methods to conduct the research and to achieve the specific aims and objectives, so researchers must select more than one research methods to obtain valid and reliable results. There are some specific advantages and disadvantages are associated with each research method, the selected research method must be contained the potential to solve the research issue and problem in the available time frame as well as in the limit of resources available to the researcher. In order to achieve the specific aims and objectives of the research, Saunders et al., (2009) have been defined some effective and important steps to achieve the research aims and objectives efficiently and effectively. The researcher will adopt the qualitative research method to conduct this research to achieve the aims and objectives of this research positively because in this way in the available time and other resources the researcher by selecting the case study as tool can achieve the aims and objectives to solve the research problem. According to the Neumann & Lawrence, (2006) that quantitative research method is most suitable for the researchers when they have limited resources as compared to the qualitative research method, but in the medical sciences in the opinion of the doctors and nursing staff there are more advantages for the researchers to adopt the qualitative research methods to collect primary data and through systematic approach the secondary data can be collected with more reliability and validity. Because there are some reasons to adopt the qualitative research methods, and one of the most suitable reason is that qualitative research method is more people centred as compared to quantitative. Through adopting this research method the researcher can easily make the conclusion and can make the positive recommendations.

3.3 Source of data

Here the researcher will use the review of literature as secondary data and the researcher will consult the books, reports, articles and journals, the researcher will also use electronic books, electronic articles and journals as well and websites as well but all the books and articles and press releases and report will be titled on the health care and on the importance of water and soap role in reducing and preventing the people from infections. The researcher will also visit the electronic library as well to download the available material on the topic of infection and its prevention methods and role of water and soap as well in the care homes in the United Kingdom especially. The researcher will also visit the University student portal and physically will visit the University library and will consult the books there and will read out the articles for better understanding and for proper data gathering to avoid biasness and to improve and to increase the validity and reliability of the secondary data.

3.4 Search results

In this research the researcher has been gathered the about 40 research papers and by adopting the criteria of inclusion and the criteria of exclusion the researcher has been rejected the 17 research papers and the remaining 23 papers were selected by the researcher to conduct the research. And after studying the research papers in details the researcher has again rejected the 8 research papers from the 23 research papers and selected the 15 research papers and then those research papers were evaluated by the researcher as per the aims and the objectives of the research.

3.5      Research Limitations

The researcher will discuss all the limitations associated with this research in detail and there are main following limitations are associated with this research

Shortage of time

Limited financial resources

The researcher has no already research experience

3.6      Ethical considerations

In this section the researcher will consider all the ethical considerations for the validity and reliability of the data and for these the researcher will not disclose the results to the co workers, colleagues and to the class fellows and the researcher will not include her own opinion in the primary data collection, the researcher will never allow other people to steel her research work. The researcher will use proper and valid resources, will not include the old references and will not make critics to anybody on the behalf of race, colour, sex, age or religion and disability. The researcher will abide by all kind of discriminations and will not disclose any information of the participants and will not use this research work for another academic purpose.

4.                 Project Planning

4.1      Introduction

The researcher has designed the following steps to carry on the research to conduct the research in a meaningful way to achieve the research aims and objectives.

4.2      Project Resources

As the researcher is conducting this research as a student to fulfil the academic requirement so all the financial cost will be paid by him and all the cost associated with this research will be paid by the researcher which includes the visiting, lunch, high tea, software purchasing, stationary, travelling and printing expense as well.

4.3      Cost of the Project

Serial  Number Description of Resources Cost (£)
1 Printing 50
2 High tea and travelling 150
3 Software cost and printing as well 250
4 Total amount 450

Gantt Chart

Background/ Problem or study X                  
Research question and Objectives X X                
Gathering Literature and Rational X X X              
Making Questionnaires     X X            
Tim Schedule in Weeks 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Collecting Primary Data and Making Analysis         X X        
Presenting results and making Conclusion and Recommendations           X X X    
Application of Contingency Plan                 X X

4.4      Contingency Plan

The researcher has 2 consecutive weeks to make necessary changes, to remove errors as per the recommendations of the honourable supervisor.

4.5     Including Criteria

During gathering the data the researcher will not include only the research work means published articles or research papers in between the January 2002 to till December 2012, to maintain the validity and reliability the researcher will not include the old research statement.

4.6     Excluding Criteria

The researcher will not include the data in the secondary data that has been published before the year 2002 because due to old technology and old trends and due to the old clinical procedures and medicines, and will not include the research papers those were published after the date of January 2013.

5.        Conclusions and Recommendations

5.1      Introduction

In this section the researcher will explain the limitations and the strategy will be explained to overcome those limitations and then after that the researcher will discuss the conclusions of the results made by keeping the results compiling and by using the review of literature as a background of the study and by relating both of them as and when necessary.

5.2      Standard Precautions

According to the Clarke, (2003) that standard precautions always are useful in reducing the probability or chance of occurring infection very low and if these precautions can be implemented effectively then the infection can be controlled easily and the cost of the infection prevention can be reduced.   

There are some precautions have been discussed by the researcher

Personal protection from (The staff members must use their own)

Gown

Gloves

Facemasks

Secondly is the use of hand hygiene (the hands must be washed with water and soap)

5.3      Transmission Based precautions

There are three different kinds of precautions

Droplet

Contact

Airborne

The combination of the precautions can be used by the nurses or by the administration as well as per requirement. According to the Cozad & Jones, (2003) that in order to reduce and to prevent people from the infection agent combination of the precautions that is the most suitable and the more effective and efficient way.

5.4      Trainings and educating people

According to the Goldrick, (1999) that following processes and procedures are required to train and creating awareness among the staff members to train them to prevent people from infection.

On Job prevention practices must be instruct to the people and the methods must be informed and the people must be informed as per job nature

Effective selection of PPE

All the staff people including contractors and regular workers must be trained

5.5      Evaluation of competencies

According to the Pratt et al., (2007) that the environment must be neat and clean and the neat and clean environment can prevent the infection agent to transmit and the hand hygiene must be implemented because the hand hygiene can play its role in the prevention of infection agent among the people. So all those people must have awareness about the importance of hand washing with water and soap and the staff members must use their own, shoes, gowns, gloves and face masks in this way the infection agent transmission can be reduced. The surgical instruments must be properly sterilize before use and proper precautions must be implemented in the hospitals and proper cleaning system must be implemented in the hospitals and in the care homes.

5.6      Hand Hygiene

According to the Larson, (1995) that hand washing is so important and the people must wash their hands with the liquid or soap and make it sure that they have cleaned their both hands and all the surface of both hands have been properly cleaned.

The people must wash their hands with water and soap with alcohol hand gels to properly clean the hands, because this is the basically efficient and effective way to prevent and to reduce the infection agent transmission. So this is also necessary for the patients, doctors, nurses and even then all the workers and all the regular, permanent and contractors to implement and act on the hand hygiene precautions and wash their hands.

5.7      Point of care when the hand hygiene is necessary

The hospital staff members of care home staff members must consider the following points because the following situations can be harmful for them so they must use hand wash before the following situations

Touching the patients

Doing wound

Any Task (aseptic)

And after the touching blood, faces, urine, vomits etc.

After touching patients

The staff members must taken into their consideration the following actions

They must wear gloves and must change the gloves after touching one patient

They must put the gloves in the bin after touching patient and do not reuse them

They must wear the gown before the patient checking and after checking they must wear off the gown and put in the dust bin and for second patient they must wear new gown.

5.8      Conclusion

As this is the social and ethical and on job duty of all the members of the hospitals and care home nursing staff to prevent and to break the infection agent cycle for improving the life and health quality of the patients and to keep clean the atmosphere free from infection agents. It is the duty of all the care providers and the hospitals to provide the healthy environment and infection free atmosphere and environment to the patients. It is their social and ethical responsibility to implement the precaution measures at the working place and in the care homes and in the hospitals.

Comparative analysis of Apple and Tesco Management

Introduction

The main purpose of this research is to highlight the importance and role of management in the success of business organization. There are so many benefits of business management to the business organization. For example the Apple Company is the most successful business organization in the world because it has the effective business management and effective business strategies. Whereas the Tesco was the successful superstore market chain in the United Kingdom and now a day is losing its business because of ineffective business management and business strategies (Thomas, 2011). Lamming, (2011) has stated that management is always responsible for the designing and developing the mission statement of the organization, objectives are also set by management and to achieve and control the employees management always design the rules, procedures and implement them on the work placement so that through effective communication and controlling organizational objectives could be achieved.

Thesis Statement

Comparative analysis of Apple and Tesco management

Basically Apple is the most successful business organization in the world whereas the Tesco is less successful business organization in the world because of management. As above I have mentioned that management functions are associated with executing a business or an organization that involves the functions of management (planning, organizing, monitoring and leading) is called the business management.

Conclusion

Through the above statement I can conclude that business management in an organization is the key to success in an organization. There are different role of management in an organization and their role varies from department to department, for example the manager in sales department will achieve the sales targets by leading and controlling, allocating resources and solving sales force problems and by encouraging them to achieve organizational objectives (Nicoloulaud, 2012). Similarly the human resources manager will recruit the best work force for the organization from the labour market to participate its role in achieving organizational objectives, and financial and accounting managers also play their roles effectively in allocating, producing and generating financial statements, accounting statement and allocating financial resources to the other departments to achieve organizational work smoothly. Manufacturing department manager will also lead, motivate and control the employees in its department and will be responsible to achieve department targets to achieve organizational objectives. According to Freeman, (2012) that “Managers at work placement plan the work, allocate resources to the employees and lead them and encourage them and solve their problems and give them proper feedback about their work so that employees can contribute towards achieving organizational objectives in efficient manners”.

Introduction

Apple is basically multinational American company that has been producing electronics products for its customers and also designing software for its customers to use its products. Apple management has the competent skills and composed of highly skilled workers to manufacture and producing Android and Symbian operating systems for its own manufactured hardware like different series of mobile phones and laptops and tablets (Apple, 2014). Apple is although offering highest price products in the market and successfully doing its business in international market and its products demand is increasing every year because of its effective business management procedures and activities the management team at Apple has all the necessary competencies and skills to compete in the market and achieving its organizational objectives efficiently and effectively. Apple business operations are managed effectively and efficiently because of highly skilled mangers in all the management process those contribute in its management process planning, organizing, controlling and leading. Tesco is the supermarket market chain leader in United Kingdom offering non food items and financial services in the United Kingdom to its customers at low prices but at high quality of products, Tesco is doing its business in global market and suffering from lot of issue because of its ineffective management. Tesco is although the market leader in the United Kingdom but is losing competitive position in global market because of its ineffective management process and activities, Tesco do not have highly skilled workers as compared to the Apple managerial skills (Tesco, 2014).

Effective Management Process

Basically management is the function or is a process used in the business and organizations to achieve their goals and objectives by using the resources like human resources, technological resources, financial resources, infrastructure and procedures and by coordinating the employee’s efforts in efficient way. Basically leaders are the people in the organizations those have specific skills to manage the things in an organization and do right things at right time and allocate right resources to the right people is called a leader whereas the term leadership is always refers to the art to perform leadership role in an organizations effectively (Hutt, 2011). There are different forms of leadership now a day including political leader that has personal interest and cause and has the vision to do for a nation or for a country, secondly it could be the executive member in an organization or institute that establish mission and vision statement for an organization and train and lead the other staff members to achieve specific goals and objectives in specific time period efficiently and effectively by using specific resources. In order to improve the effectiveness of organizations and to lead and to achieve and sustain competitive position the organizations needs to bring quality in their products and services offer them at lower cost to increase market share and to generate sales revenue, and these thing are possible by the effective management (Apple, 2014). Effective management means that resources should be allocated to the right people at right time to the right people to save time and to avoid wastage of resources, so by maximum utilization and output of resources management is necessary. To achieve organizational objectives it is important that managers leads the employees towards achieving organizational objectives, management/ managers are always responsible for the integrating all the resources in a line to achieve common objectives. It is the management that allocates the organizational resources to the employees and assigned the different tasks in different positions to achieve specific tasks to achieve organizational objectives (Byars, 2012).

Management is basically the mixture of science and arts it is not purely science not art, management term has the following activities

Planning

Planning means to plan the aims and objectives of an organization and also defining the targets and tasks for the human resource management. Management at Apple has the effective skills and competencies as compared to Tesco management. At Apple management always focus on the innovation technology and they successfully plan the aims and objectives, whereas at Tesco managers do not have such competencies and skills to establish Tesco aims and objectives as according to the job and market interest. At the Apple management is continuously involved in establishing and refining the aims and objectives of the company and focus on the innovations and new technology to provide best operating system and modern hardware technology, at Apple management always involved in research and development activities to bring innovations in its way of achieving organizational objectives, whereas in the Tesco the management only once establishes the aims and objectives and then they just focus on the established and pre defined procedures to achieve organizational objectives (Bateman, 2011). 

Organizing

Organizing means to allocate the resources to the employees as according to their job nature and according to their skills and experience. Human resource can play their effective role in achieving organizational objectives efficiently and effectively (timely, and without wasting resources). At Apple the CEO has introduced the innovative leadership style to motivate its employees and established the planning board whereas at the Tesco only the management involve in planning phase. At Apple incorporation this organizational structure provide an opportunity to work as team (engineers and programmers and other professional) to establish organizational aims and objectives and procedures to motivate its employees. Tesco only corporate level management is involved in establishing organizational aims and objectives (Asakawa, 2012).

Staffing

Staffing means that recruitment the staff member as according to the job description, and specific criteria is always define to recruit people to play their role in achieving specific tasks in an organization then after recruitment employees are given training and rewarded them as per their performance to retain them with the organization. Apple employees feel more job security and taking high salaries and other benefits as compared to Tesco employees and this is the main reason of high productive attitude of Apple employees. Apple incorporation is using the innovative methods and online methods to provide training to its employees to create efficiency while saving time and cost whereas at Tesco employees do not have opportunity to provide them training online. Apple incorporation management hire the people from all over the world and offer them highly salaries and other benefits and provide them training in different phases as according to their skills and build high competencies among them and reward them with high perks and benefits whereas Tesco has only 30% of its business outside the UK and Tesco concentrate on UK labour market and recruit the labour form only one market and Tesco employees profile is less than the Apple employee’s profile (Tesco, 2014) (Thomas, 2011).

Leading

Managers in an organization always lead their subordinators and lead them by their skills and motivate them in achieving organizational objectives, listen them, their problems and provide them friendly environment at work placement so that they can contribute and share their problems and share their experiences and knowledge with each others to solve the problem. Leading is an important function of management that involves the activities to motivate the employees to achieve their tasks effectively. At Apple incorporation management is successfully motivating the employees in achieving organizational objectives and employees has devoted themselves and contributed more as compared to the Tesco employees because at Apple Incorporation employees feel more job security and they are earning high scale of salaries and other benefits and compensations as compared to Tesco employees. Tesco employee’s salaries are low and their benefits are also less as compared to Apple incorporation. The leadership style at Apple is scientific management and the working environment is friendly and trusty, at Tesco the transformational leadership is implemented and they have created conservative and unfriendly environment at work placement. Employees as team workers in Apple feel trusty and friendly environment and they share their ideas and experience and helped each other that creat quality of work (Lamming, 2011).

Controlling

Controlling means to control the difference resources, organizational management control the resources through their performance and for this purpose managers always collect the information regarding the resources performance and then measured them as per defined standards. At Apple incorporation employees are controlled by their immediate boss and it has the innovative techniques to measure employee’s performance and management at Apple has the more competencies and skills to control the employees and other resources as compared to Tesco Plc (Nicoloulaud, 2012).

Conclusion

Through above data it has been concluded that Apple incorporation is successful organization whereas the Tesco is less successful organization because of management efficiency, the management at Apple is efficient and its function, leadership style and employee’s skills are appropriate as compared to Tesco management. In the organizing function managers at Apple incorporation focus on the organizational structure and they divide the tasks as according to the skills and competencies of the employees to carry out the routine tasks whereas at the Tesco the management is involved in allocating the resources to the employees to achieve their objectives. The efficient way to achieve organizational objectives can be seen at Apple rather than at Tesco. Apple believes in team work whereas at Tesco management believes in group working efficiency. So the success of Apple also depends on the organizing function that is performed by its high qualified team members (Byars, 2012). At Apple management has the main three skills including interpersonal skills, technical skills and conceptual skills and all the managers at all level are fully have these skills to carry out their work. Technical skills are very important for the engineers to carry out special tasks. Technical skills also mean that they must have the ability to train their subordinators and colleagues to motivate them to achieve special tasks. At Tesco the managers have the necessary skills but do not have the technical skills to motivate others and to train their colleagues and subordinators. Conceptual skills are very important for the management because managers must think logically and conceptually to make effective decisions, at Apple incorporation the employees have the conceptual skills to achieve their goals and objectives successfully by making effective decisions. At Tesco managers have the abilities to perform their skills but they need to focus on the corporate level guidelines and managers are not independent to make their own decisions to carry out work (Hutt, 2011). Interpersonal skills are related with the communication efficiency and at Apple incorporation the communication methods are efficient and all the managers and corporate level management remains in touch with each other and share their problems and experience and knowledge. At Tesco managers have the interpersonal skills but they do not have the effective way of communication. Managers at Apple are more motivated and committed as compared to the Tesco managers because of management style and their code of conduct (Freeman, 2012).

Financial Statement Analysis

Financial Statement Analysis

1.        How in your FSA subject do you view the income statements, including cash flow statements and the balance sheet in determining the profitability of a company?                

1.1       Income Statement

Income statement or profit or loss statement is basically a financial statement of an organization for a specific time period that measures the financial performance which shows the revenues and the business expenses through operating and non operating activities (Berends, 2010). This statement also shows the net profit or loss incurred by the company over a specific time period. There are two main portions in an income statement, income portion deals with operating items and this portion is used to analyze by the investors to disclose the information about sales/ revenues and incurred expenses through business operations (Black, 2011).

http://i.investopedia.com/inv/articles/slideshow/balance-sheet/asset-liab-equity.jpg

Source: Author

                                   Assets = Liabilities + Owner’s equity

The other portion is non-operating that contains the information about revenues and expenses that does not generated by the business to perform business regular operations (Bragg, 2013). This statement is used to assess organizational profitability by deducting the expenses from the generated revenue over a specific time period (Boone, 2013). If net income positive this means profit otherwise is loss.

1.2       Balance Sheet

Balance sheet is the financial statement that summarizes the organizational assets, owner’s equity and its liabilities over a specific time period (Brealey and Stewart, 2011). The main purpose of balance sheet is to have an idea about the financial condition of an organization that shows the own and owes of organization. It helps the businessmen to understand the strengths and capabilities of organization (Brendy, 2012).

http://www.wordstemplates.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/Balance-Sheet-Template.jpg

Source: Author

Total Assets = Current assets + Other Assets + fixed Assets

Liabilities = Current Liabilities + Long term Liabilities

Net Worth = Assets – Liabilities – Book Value

Retained Earnings = Earnings retained for business opportunities/ investments

1.3       Cash Flow Statement

Cash flow statement contains about 17 items listed in the specific order they need to appear, cash flow statement is prepared monthly for the first year, quarterly in 2nd year and annually for 3rd year of business (Broadbent and Cullen, 2012). Cash shows the cash in hand, sales shows the income from sale paid for cash receive able means income from collection on cash owed to the business resulting in sales, other incomes means liquidation of asset, income from any investment and loan interest that has been extended (Dayanada, 2012). Total income in cash flow statement shows the total money (sales + receivables + other income). Merchandise or material is raw material used by the company to manufacture products, when raw material comes in, cash goes out. The labour required to manufacture product is called direct labour, expenses required incurred for business operations called overhead (Drury, 2012). Under marketing the expenses, commissions and direct costs related with marketing and sales departments are considered. Research and development are expenses for R & D operations. Some expenses called general and administration expenses incurred during the general administrative operations of business. Information about the paid taxes, except payroll are also treated as expenses in cash flow statement (Dyson, 2013). Capital shows the investment amount need to create income, loan payments are the payments use to reduce long term liabilities, material cost plus direct labour, marketing sales, research and developments, taxes, loan payments, capital and overhead expenses shows the total expenses (Fridson, et al., 2013). Whereas the cumulative cash flow is calculated by subtracting previous cash flow from current cash flow (Gartner, et al., 2013).

2.         Importance and role in determining profitability of a company

The financial statements provide the information to the creditors and investors to evaluate an organizational financial strengths and performance. Manager, creditors and investors need published financial information of an organization to make measurements and making analysis (Berends, 2010). The financial conditions of an organization are of important and major concerns to creditors and investors, as well as financial managers also need this information for making financial decisions and to know financial condition of company. Balance sheet shows the liabilities, assets and owner’s equity, it does not contains the information about business operations and changes occurred during the specific period to run business and final results, so the creditors, investors and financial manager need income statement to know the profit and loss, and cash flow to evaluate the cash flow in and out of company account to carried out business operations (Boone, 2013). Through income statement past and current incomes can be compare that shows the performance of an organization. A retained earning is part of equity is of important for the creditors and investors to understand the strengths and performance of an organization because if there is an increase in retained earning it means that a steady growth in organizational shareholder’s equity (Black, 2011).

3.         Explain 5 ratios clearly

3.1       Profitability ratio

Financial ratios are used to measure the business abilities to generate revenue as compared to it expenses and other costs incurred in a specific time period (Bragg, 2013). Higher values of these ratios as compared to organizational competitors show that organization is doing well business. These ratios assess the ability of organization to earn profit, sales revenue and cash flow (Brealey and Stewart, 2011). The creditors and investors and business owner also need these ratios to make investment decision for future or to understand the business performance in past period.  The most important ratios are return on capital employed (ROCE), gross profit margin, net profit margin and cash return on capital invested (CROCI) (Brendy, 2012). ROCE indicate how well an organization is using capital to generate returns and money for its shareholders is indicated by return on investment. Higher values means organization is executing operations in well manner to earn profit (Broadbent and Cullen, 2012).

3.2       Debt ratio

This is another financial ratio that is used by the creditors, investors and business owner to measure the degree of consumer’s leverage (Drury, 2012). This is ratio of total debt to total assets, and is expressed in percentage. Higher this ratio indicates that the risk associated with this company is high lower value of this ratio indicate low risk (Dayanada, 2012).

http://i.investopedia.com/debt_ratio.gif

Source: Author

3.3       Liquidity ratio,

Liquidity ratio basically indicates the organizational ability to repay short term to the creditors to reduce short term liabilities (Dyson, 2013). Liquidity ratio can be calculated by following formula

Liquidity Ratio = Liquid Assets / Short term Liabilities

If the value of the liquidity ratio is greater than 1 then it means that fully covered. High ratio indicate low risk of default, low ratio indicates higher risk of default (Fridson, et al., 2013).

3.4       Turnover ratio,

Turnover ratio indicate the number of times (frequency, repetition) of organization inventory replaced during a specific time schedule (Gartner, et al., 2013). Turnover ratio can be calculated as cost of goods/products/ services sold divided by average inventory over a specific time period. High value result indicates that organization is producing and selling products/ services quickly (Berends, 2010).

Inventory Turnover

Source: Author

3.5       Employee ratio

This ratio indicates an important ratio of organization between sales and number of employees (Boone, 2013). Higher value of this ratio means more productivity of organization higher value indicates more revenue generated by an employee (Black, 2011).

Revenue Per Employee

Source: Author

A critical discussion of The Work of Art in the Age of Its Technological Reproducibility

1.          Introduction

The essay is important for its early analysis of photography, and the influence photography and technological reproducibility have had on art and our perception of it. I summarized the essay below, dedicating a short paragraph to each of the chapters of Walter Benjamin’s essay. I have commented briefly after each paragraph to indicate strong and weak points in the essay. First of all, Benjamin observes that the reproducibility of art is a consequence of the advances of productive capitalist society, and that the political interest of its consequences should not be underestimated. Benjamin’s main observation is correct and extremely important. One may quarrel with the Marxist style of his preliminary observations (Samuel, 1996). However, they are explicit, not hidden and do not influence his main analysis of the consequences of the reproducibility of art, and should rather be seen as hallmarks of intellectual integrity and openness (Taylor, 1997).

2.          First Paragraph

 Next, he observes that though reproducibility of artworks has been known for a long time (casting, stamping, woodcuts, movable type, engraving, etching, lithography), with the advent of photography, reproduction in detail was vastly accelerated, with minimal effort. He sets out to analyze the effects of the reproduction of artworks and the art of film, on art in its traditional form. Again, Benjamin’s main observation is acute, and acknowledges the strong influence that reproductive society has on our perception. He rightly considers the influence of photography on art as dominant compared to the influence of art on photography although the latter is also important. In fact, he stops short of analysing the wider influence of photography on culture in society, although he alludes to it often in the sequel of the essay. He could have allowed his observations a wider applicability (Walter, 1988). Benjamin is clearly aware of that but chooses nevertheless to concentrate on the influence on art. The choice of domain is artificially small, and is presumably the cause for a much less refined treatment of much broader subjects in the introduction and epilogue (Theodor, 1997).

3.          Second Paragraph

Benjamin argues that the work of art is distinguished from a reproduction by the here and now of the artwork. He argues that photographic reproduction is not forgery, since it can reveal details unobservable to the human eye, and can place the artwork in otherwise unreachable contexts. Reproducibility endangers the original’s aura. Mass existence detaches the authentic object from the sphere of tradition. Once more, Benjamin makes an important observation. The reproduction of an artwork is not like the original, however, note that Benjamin chooses here to think of photography of art, and not of photography by itself. He considers the artwork as reproducible via photography, and concentrates on the difference between the reproduction and the original, identifying authenticity and aura of the artwork as qualities that are lost in the process of reproduction (Samuel, 1996). Aura and authenticity are vague concepts, in my view, and I associate them with an old view on art in which a Master realizes a singular work of art, and distils magic on a canvas. However, it is true that the concepts of aura and authenticity can, in many particular instances be filled in concretely, and they are therefore useful. More examples would have been appropriate. To me the most important point at this junction is that photographs are reproducible independent of their application (Taylor, 1997). It is one of their most important characteristics, here applied only to the reproducible reproduction of a work of art. In fact the paragraph show that Benjamin is only concerned with a particular application of photography, namely in art. His essay cannot be read as an analysis of photography proper, although it contains important elements for such an undertaking. In particular, anything photographed becomes a mechanically reproducible image. That is an important characteristic of the act of photographing (Walter, 1988).

4.          Third Paragraph

Modes of perception change. Aura is associated to distance. By reproduction, distances gets smaller, sameness is extracted from uniqueness, the work of art becomes repeatable and transitory. The reverence for true art is again manifest in the description of what photographical reproduction does to the artwork, perhaps, to make the transition clearer, Benjamin consciously exaggerates the starting point (Samuel, 1996). However, that is unnecessary and refers to a very classic view on art. I often want to be close, feel close is taken in by the artwork, are emotionally touched by its mastery. Moreover, associating repeatability to transistorize does not make little sense, nor does associating art to eternity make sense, although again, it is a classic mistake. Eternity is a concept that I won’t easily fit into my lifetime. It is a negation of the finitude that we are familiar with in our lives, and that I should cherish. Benjamin makes the very important point that our perception of art changed through its reproducibility. That is certainly true, and needs to be analyzed in more detail (Taylor, 1997).

5.          Fourth Paragraph

The uniqueness of the work of art is determined by its basis in ritual. Art in the age of reproducibility is revolutionized. It is based not anymore on ritual, but politics. Ritual is advanced as a prerequisite for art. Without ritual, art becomes a goal in and of itself. However, there is nothing wrong with that, and I believe that art has gained its independency of ritual, and that it deserved to do so (Walter, 1988).

6.          Fifth Paragraph

The stress on the cult value of works of art has shifted to their exhibition value. Photography and film are ideally suited for realizing that shift. Again an acute and visionary observation, a further analysis of the consequences of this fact, both negative and positive, is necessary (Theodor, 1997).

7.          Sixth paragraph

From some cult value in early photography portraits, fleeting human presence via at get photography has become evidence for a historical process. Perhaps, when photographs were less widely spread, they kept cult value. However, they were always ideally suited for exhibition, and they still are, even the eldest ones.

8.          Seventh Paragraph

Certainly, it is true that we must not ask whether photography is an art, for various reasons. The technological innovation underlying photography and film revolutionized our vision, and we must undertake the definition of new categories to cope with its advent, instead of trying to fit them into an old dictionary. However, it is also insufficient to ask how photography as a technique of reproduction has changed art. It has changed art in more drastic ways than as a means of reproduction. It seems that Benjamin underestimates still the importance of photography (Taylor, 1997).

9.          Eight Paragraph

The actor is tested optically by cinematography. The audience is not in personal contact, but takes the position of the camera, the optical tester. The approach contradicts the cult value.

10.      Ninth Paragraph

In film, the actor loses his person, his here and now. The best acting is where the actor acts as little as possible losing his aura entirely, the actor need not identify with a role. Indeed, the best acting is often minimal and I believe this is partly due to the viewer’s capability for empathy and her imagination (Samuel, 1996).

11.      Tenth Paragraph

The screen actor confronts the consumer. Capital sets the fashion. Film is only revolutionary in its criticism of the traditional concepts of art. Everybody can be filmed, everybody writes. The masses are involved. The revolt of the masses is a fact and I associate it to a rise of the overall standard of living rather than to one particular facet of technological revolution and the breadth of its manifestation is, by nature, large (Theodor, 1997).

12.      Eleventh Paragraph

Vision of reality is one via apparatuses, diminishing distance and increasing detail. Our daily perception of reality has remained more or less constant, from our ape days until now, and the influence of apparatuses on our daily lives should not be exaggerated. Their technological importance, and their importance in scientific discovery, of course, can hardly be overestimated and it is true that to some degree, the associated sense of possibility has influenced popular culture (Walter, 1988).

13.      Twelfths Paragraph

Pleasure becomes fused with expert appraisal, in the relation of the masses with art. Simultaneous mass reception of painting is unthinkable, and does not naturally confront masses directly. Art is again associated to an elite, individual activity, while it is essential that culture is public, and only in its publicity and public value, it can be culture. However, it is clear that a reaction of the masses cannot replace an expert opinion, when better informed, based on a broader interpretation, a finer analysis of distinguishing characteristics, etcetera, the larger public should take time to listen to experts, but should by no means be excused from an attempt to shape an informed opinion (Taylor, 1997). Any suggestion to that effect is tantamount to cultural suicide.

14.      Thirteenth Paragraph

Film sharpens and deepens our optical and auditory impressions. Artistic uses and scientific uses of photography are identical, as will be demonstrated by film. My field of vision is enlarged, our eye is sharpened. We see things we could not see before, discovering the optical unconscious. Benjamin rightly estimates that photography and film have influenced and enlarged our visual perception. This society has developed a far more subtle visual language, due to the omnipresence of imagery and a linguistic analysis of visual language in contemporary imagery is called for (Walter, 1988).

15.      Fourteenth Paragraph

Dadaists destroyed the aura of art and outraged the public. Film is shock replaced by shock. The analysis of cinema is certainly not simplified by the continuous visual attack on our brain during viewing. The analysis of film should be approached with caution, time delay, and a stop button.

16.      Last Paragraph

The artist enters the painting the masses absorb the work of art. Concentration is contrasted with distraction. The public is a distracted examiner. Benjamin again uses a classic image of art in which the artist loses himself in the painting, contrasted with the masses devouring art. The latter is a more optimistic view on art than we are used to from Benjamin. Fascism allows masses to express themselves, not changing the property relations and war delivers the artistic gratification of a sense of perception altered by technology (Samuel, 1996).

Conclusion

The Work of Art in the Age of its Technological Reproducibility points towards very important consequences of the invention and pervasiveness of photography. Benjamin wrote an essay about art and about the influence of photography on art. He identifies technological reproducibility as a paramount feature of photography. His concept of art is classical, and his essay seems to have a pessimist undertone about the influence of modern media on the experience and social consequences of art. He rightly identifies the strong influence of photography and film on our modes of perception. By contrast I would like to argue that photography and its reproducibility are still underestimated in this essay, where its function is too often narrowed down to the reproduction of art. I wish to stress the necessity of a linguistic analysis of visual imagery and a more thorough study of the special relationship between art and politics, from the perspective of quieter times. It is necessary to understand photography and film better, to better control its potentially destructive use. Clearly, photography has made fine art more democratically accessible to a much wider public and the influence of this fact on art should not be overestimated, whereas art is bought by a small fraction of the people that have been reached by photography and it is true that expert critics and potential buyers have gained easier access to art works through photography, but it would be fair to conclude from this that better art has gotten a better chance of getting the upper hand, not only in the market, but everywhere worldwide (Theodor, 1997). The influence of the public at large on the expert critics and buyers exists but should not be exaggerated. We should not confuse products of distraction and entertainment with the production of works of art. Though it is extremely interesting to analyze precisely the way in which Benjamin identifies, like a visionary, salient features of technological and cultural streams during his lifetime, more than half a decade later it should strongly be recognized that his analysis is dated (Samuel, 1996).

impact of finance on the financial statements

Impact of Long term Loans

Chief executive must be aware of impact on long term loan on the company because liabilities are debts the company incurs. As Chief executive should understand that the liabilities are the basically source of funding and they can grow large, and may find itself owing more than it earned the profit. So the Chief executive must manage the long term loans because it is liability that contributes its role for earning profitability. Secondly the long term loans are borrowed money and if the company has less amount payable the value of the company will increases (Catherine, 2011). In the balance statement the long term loans are the assets (Kenneth and Willinger, 2009). The balance sheet equation is as Assets= Sum of Liabilities + Equity.  It simple means that the business resources (long term loans) are acquired by incurring obligations to creditors, and when the amount of loan will be low means that the value of assets will be decrease. Change in the assets means that the change in the liabilities and owner’s equity (Agnes, et al., 2010).

Impact of Equity Share

Chief executive must maintain the value in the organization that is actual equity share. Equity share is basically the part of the business that could not be funded by the loans amount but it could be earned from the buying of shares of the business (Olsen and Dietrich, 2011). Equity share always have a positive impact on the business especially in financing for a business, so the Chief executive must consider this factor. If by mistake if the value of equity shares drops, in this way the worth or value of the company will be decrease and investors will not invest money (Juan, 2008). Repurchase of share will reduce the cash holding and also the total assets it will also shrink the shareholder’s equity. As a result return on asset and return on equity typically improve (Patricia, et al., 2011).

Impact of Finance and Operating Leases

To purchase an asset the companies borrow the money from creditors and in this way the assets side is debited in the balance sheet (what comes in) and the interest amount (what goes out) is always deducted from the operating profit (expenditures) (Ball and Watts, 2009). In this way the operating profit will be low (Mary, et al., 2013).